Spoken language terminology

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  • Created by: emily_w
  • Created on: 22-04-14 17:00
Discourse
The study of spoken language
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Mode
How it is presented, ie written or spoken
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Paralinguistic features
Things that aid communication but aren't language, eg body language and facial expressions
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Prosodic features
"sound effects" like stress and pitch
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Stress
Emphasis placed on certain words or syllables
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Intonation
The rise and fall of someone's speaking voice.
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Adjacency pair
When one utterance leads to another in turn-taking, eg a question leading to an answer
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Back channelling
Feedback through encouraging noises or positive comments like "yeah", which encourage the speaker
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Running repair
The process of socially organising a question if two people accidentally start talking simultaneously
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Topic marker
An utterance that establishes a conversation's topic
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Topic shifter
An utterance that changes the topic of a conversation, like "so anyway"
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Interrupted construction
When the speaker abandons an utterance in the middle of it and moves on to another tact, focus or topic
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False starts
When a speaker realises the start of the utterance won't work and stops and rephrases it
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Hesitation indicators
Interjections like "um" "er" which buy the speaker time while they think of what to say
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Latch-ons
When a speaker starts as soon as the previous speaker has finished, with little or no pause. Could be to establish conversational dominance or because of familiarity between speakers
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Glottal stops
Omission of dental sounds in the middle of words, like when "butter" becomes "bu'er"
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Non-fluency features
Features that indicate someone is not speaking fluently, which could be for several reasons. Eg stammering when under pressure or a foreign speaker inverting syntax
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Tag question
A question added to a statement, eg "It's cold, isn't it?"
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Vocative
A direct reference to another speaker, eg "Bob, can you...?"
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Elision
The omission of a vowel or syllable in the proninciation of a word
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Code switching
When a speaker can alter register/clarity in order to suit their social sitution
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Recieved Pronounciation
"The Queen's English". Stereotypical posh English accent. What Tom Hiddleston sounds like.
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Idiolect
The speech patterns of a particular person
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How it is presented, ie written or spoken

Back

Mode

Card 3

Front

Things that aid communication but aren't language, eg body language and facial expressions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

"sound effects" like stress and pitch

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Emphasis placed on certain words or syllables

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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