Spoken Language Terminology

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  • Created by: Castiel
  • Created on: 13-10-16 16:01
Accent
The way in which words are pronounced. Can vary according to speaker's region or social class
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Adjacency Pairs
Parallel expressions. Q&A, greeting & greeting.
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Agenda Setting
The negotiation or control of the subject discussed in conversation.
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Back-channel
Words, phrases and signals used by a listener to give feedback to a speaker that the message is being followed and understood.
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Closed Question
A question that involves a 'yes' or 'no' answer.
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Collaborative Completion
Listener contributions that finish another person's utterance.
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Competitive Turn-taking
Different speakers talk at the same time. often used in an argument.
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Co-operative Overlaps
Supportive interuptions, often seen as a feature of all-female conversations.
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Declaratives
Statements. Utterances that impart infomation.
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Deixis
Words such as 'this' 'thst' 'here' 'there' which refer forewards, backwards or outside of the text - a sort of verbal pointing. Dependent feature of talk
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Dialect
The distinctive grammer and vocbulary associated with a regional language.
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Discourse Marker
Words and phrases which are used to signal the relationship and connections between utterances.
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Elision
Missing out letters which are marked by an apostrophe in writing. Can't, She'll, Don't.
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Ellipsis
The omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues
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Self-correction
When speakers begin an utterance, make a false start then stops and either repeats or reformulates it.
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Face
Face is maintained by an audience, not the speaker. This is acheived by the listener accepting the face being presented by the speaker, and just generally being sensitive to them.
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Face Threatening Act
Language or actons that reject the face someone presents to us.
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False Start
This is when the speaker begins an utterance, then stops and either reformulates or repeats it.
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Filler
Non-semantic items which are inserted in speech. 'er' 'um' 'ah'
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Hedge
Words and phrases which soften or weaken the force with which an utterance is said. 'Sort of' 'I think'
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Imperative
A command.
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Interactional Talk
Language in conversation used for socialising.
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Interrogative
A question
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Open Question
A question that allows for a variety of answers.
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Non-fluency Features
Typical and normal characteristics of spoken language that interrupt the flow of talk. (Pausing to thinnk, Fillers, Suddenly changing topic.)
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Paralinguistic Features
The use of gestures, facial expressions and other non-verbal elements, such as laughter, to add pragmatic force to the speakers' messages beyond the words being spoken.
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Phatic Talk
Conversational utterances whose purpose is to establish or maintain personal relationships. Small Talk.
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Pragmatics
What a speaker means rather than simply the wordds they say - the implications, the inferred meanings.
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Prosodic Features
Featres used by speakers to mark out key meanings in a message. How something sounds.
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Repairs
An alteration that is suggested or made by a speaker, the adresseeor audience in order to correct or clarify a pervious converstaional conttribution.
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Rhetorical Question
A question where an answer is not anticipated.
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Taboo Language
Words or expressions felt to be shocking or unacceptable in polite situations.
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Tag Question
Two words added to a declarative sentance to turn the statement into a question. 'isn't it?'
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Transactional Talk
Language to get things done or to transmit content or information.
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Turn Taking
The 'rules' by which interlocutors take turns in a conversation.
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Utterance
The verbal equivelent of a sentence.
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Vague Language
Statements which sound imprecise and unassertive.
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Convergence
A speaker moves towards another speakers accent, dialect or sociolect to reduce the social distance between them.
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Divergence
A speaker actively distances their own styles of speech from another speaker to increase the social distance between them.
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Accomodation Theory
The process by which altering one's speech to fit in with another's style of speech.
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Overt Prestige
Lexis and grammar considered to be high status in the culture.
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Covert Prestige
The use of non-standard English within a group and conveying high status within that group but not in mainstream society.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Parallel expressions. Q&A, greeting & greeting.

Back

Adjacency Pairs

Card 3

Front

The negotiation or control of the subject discussed in conversation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Words, phrases and signals used by a listener to give feedback to a speaker that the message is being followed and understood.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A question that involves a 'yes' or 'no' answer.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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