Spoken Language Terminology

  • Created by: Castiel
  • Created on: 13-10-16 16:01
The way in which words are pronounced. Can vary according to speaker's region or social class
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Adjacency Pairs
Parallel expressions. Q&A, greeting & greeting.
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Agenda Setting
The negotiation or control of the subject discussed in conversation.
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Words, phrases and signals used by a listener to give feedback to a speaker that the message is being followed and understood.
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Closed Question
A question that involves a 'yes' or 'no' answer.
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Collaborative Completion
Listener contributions that finish another person's utterance.
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Competitive Turn-taking
Different speakers talk at the same time. often used in an argument.
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Co-operative Overlaps
Supportive interuptions, often seen as a feature of all-female conversations.
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Statements. Utterances that impart infomation.
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Words such as 'this' 'thst' 'here' 'there' which refer forewards, backwards or outside of the text - a sort of verbal pointing. Dependent feature of talk
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The distinctive grammer and vocbulary associated with a regional language.
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Discourse Marker
Words and phrases which are used to signal the relationship and connections between utterances.
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Missing out letters which are marked by an apostrophe in writing. Can't, She'll, Don't.
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The omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues
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When speakers begin an utterance, make a false start then stops and either repeats or reformulates it.
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Face is maintained by an audience, not the speaker. This is acheived by the listener accepting the face being presented by the speaker, and just generally being sensitive to them.
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Face Threatening Act
Language or actons that reject the face someone presents to us.
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False Start
This is when the speaker begins an utterance, then stops and either reformulates or repeats it.
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Non-semantic items which are inserted in speech. 'er' 'um' 'ah'
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Words and phrases which soften or weaken the force with which an utterance is said. 'Sort of' 'I think'
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A command.
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Interactional Talk
Language in conversation used for socialising.
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A question
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Open Question
A question that allows for a variety of answers.
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Non-fluency Features
Typical and normal characteristics of spoken language that interrupt the flow of talk. (Pausing to thinnk, Fillers, Suddenly changing topic.)
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Paralinguistic Features
The use of gestures, facial expressions and other non-verbal elements, such as laughter, to add pragmatic force to the speakers' messages beyond the words being spoken.
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Phatic Talk
Conversational utterances whose purpose is to establish or maintain personal relationships. Small Talk.
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What a speaker means rather than simply the wordds they say - the implications, the inferred meanings.
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Prosodic Features
Featres used by speakers to mark out key meanings in a message. How something sounds.
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An alteration that is suggested or made by a speaker, the adresseeor audience in order to correct or clarify a pervious converstaional conttribution.
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Rhetorical Question
A question where an answer is not anticipated.
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Taboo Language
Words or expressions felt to be shocking or unacceptable in polite situations.
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Tag Question
Two words added to a declarative sentance to turn the statement into a question. 'isn't it?'
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Transactional Talk
Language to get things done or to transmit content or information.
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Turn Taking
The 'rules' by which interlocutors take turns in a conversation.
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The verbal equivelent of a sentence.
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Vague Language
Statements which sound imprecise and unassertive.
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A speaker moves towards another speakers accent, dialect or sociolect to reduce the social distance between them.
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A speaker actively distances their own styles of speech from another speaker to increase the social distance between them.
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Accomodation Theory
The process by which altering one's speech to fit in with another's style of speech.
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Overt Prestige
Lexis and grammar considered to be high status in the culture.
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Covert Prestige
The use of non-standard English within a group and conveying high status within that group but not in mainstream society.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Parallel expressions. Q&A, greeting & greeting.


Adjacency Pairs

Card 3


The negotiation or control of the subject discussed in conversation.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Words, phrases and signals used by a listener to give feedback to a speaker that the message is being followed and understood.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


A question that involves a 'yes' or 'no' answer.


Preview of the back of card 5
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