Speech Features

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Who is talking
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What is being talked about
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Where the talk takes place
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When the talk takes place
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Purpose of Speech
Why are the participants talking
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The ways in which language varies in relation to audience, purposes and contexts.
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the language style acquired by individuals as a result of their personal characteristics, systems of belief (ideologies) and social experience.
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the variations in grammar and lexis produced as a result of local community and regional diversity.
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the variation in ways of pronouncing a language, especially one associated with a particular community or region.
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language variations produced by the effects of education, socio-economic class, systems of belief (ideologies), occupation and membership of any other social groups.
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Standard English
A universally accepted dialect of English that is well-respected and carries prestige
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Received Pronunciation (RP)
RP is associated with educated speakers and formal speech. It has connotations of prestige and authority, but also of privilege and arrogance.
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Phatic Speech
used in conversation to maintain cooperation or respect for the other speaker
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lexical items that ‘point’ towards something and place words only used in context
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Interrupted constructions
One construction abandoned in favour of another (also known as false starts)
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Disjointed constructions
‘Broken’ sentences
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Incomplete constructions
Words or grammatical elements missing
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Non-standard grammar
Anything that deviates from Standard form
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Turn taking
Taking it in turns to speak
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Adjacency pairs
Two-part exchanges / three-part exchanges
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Topic shifts
Changes in topic
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Topic shifters
utterances that initiate these changes in topic
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Topic loops
conversation returns to an earlier topic
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resolves a problem that has arisen in a conversation
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demonstration that listener is listening
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Closing sequence
ritual exchanges to end the conversation – can be verbal / paralinguistic
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Utterances that provide information
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Expresses participant's feelings
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Main emphasis is on getting something done.
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Main emphasis is on the social relationship between the participants.
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'Small talk'
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Accommodation Theory - Convergence
Decreasing social distance
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Accommodation Theory - Divergence
Occurs when participants’ speech styles move further apart.
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Accommodation Theory - Mutual Convergence
Both participants converge towards each other.
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Grice's Maxims - Quantity
say neither more or less than is required.
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Grice's Maxims - Relevance
only say what is relevant to the topic.
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Grice's Maixms - Manner
avoid ambiguity and obscurity.
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Grice's Maxims - Quality
be truthful and say nothing false.
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Labov Narrative Categories - Abstract
The indication that a narrative is about to start and the speaker wants a listener’s attention.
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Labov Narrative Categories - Orientation
The ‘who’, ‘where’, ‘what’ and ‘why’ of the narrative.
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Labov Narrative Categories - Complicating Action
The main body providing a range of narrative detail.
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Labov Narrative Categories - Resolution
The final events, the ‘rounding off’ to give narrative closure.
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Labov Narrative Categories - Evaluation
Additions to the basic story, to highlight attitudes or to command the listener’s attention at important moments.
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Labov Narrative Categories - Coda
A sign that the narrative is complete. This might include a return to the initial time frame before narrative.
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Card 2


What is being talked about



Card 3


Where the talk takes place


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Card 4


When the talk takes place


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Card 5


Why are the participants talking


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