Spectroscopy key definitions

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Volatility
The ease with which a liquid turns into a gas. As boiling point decreases, volatility increases.
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Oxidation
When oxygen is added to a molecule.
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Oxidising agent
Acidified potassium dichromate
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Reflux
Used to make primary alcohols into carboxylic acids or secondary into ketones.
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Distillation
Used to make primary alcohols into aldehydes or secondary into ketones.
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Ester
Formed when an alcohol and carboxylic acid react. -(C=O)-O-(CH2)-
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Esterification
Reaction between alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce ester and water.
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Dehydration
Is an elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.
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Hydrolysis
Is the reaction with water or aqueous hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical bond into two compounds.
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Percentage yield
Found by moles product/moles of reactant x100.
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Atom economy
Mr of desired product/Mr of all products x100
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IR spectroscopy
Shows the absorption of IR radiation by bonds to show what bonds are present in a sample
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Mass spectrometry
Shows the mass/charge for fragments of a molecule
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MS fragment
A piece of the molecule broke in MS. Allows us to piece together the starting molecule.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When oxygen is added to a molecule.

Back

Oxidation

Card 3

Front

Acidified potassium dichromate

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Used to make primary alcohols into carboxylic acids or secondary into ketones.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Used to make primary alcohols into aldehydes or secondary into ketones.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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