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Slave, half free- kept some of their produce. Could possibly amass wealth.
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Kleros. 1 Helot family to each Kleros. (Pommeroy)
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Amphipolis, 700 Brasidians: set free for gallantry. Thucydides: settled at Lepreon.
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General domestic chores, wet nurses envied for making children content and not scared of dark etc.
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In the Syssition: "used to make Helots drunk and exhibit them to the boys as a deterent from excessive drinking."
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Laconia / Lacedaemonia and Messenia. Laconian helots: conquered by Dorians. Messenian: in Messenian wars.
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Only by government action could they...?
Be manumitted or moved from their land/kleros.
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Helot boys, 'adopted' as playmates for Spartan boys. Went through the Agoge, but no citizenship.
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Helots given freedom for meritous action. Were not 'equals' or 'peers' though became liable for military service.
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Mentions of Neodamodes...?
R. Pausanias may have promised some Helots this stauts, he was tried for it. The Brasidians at Amphipolis 422. Battle of Mantinea- used in regular battle lines. (Herodotus: 35,00 in Peloponnesian war).
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After 1st Messenian war: 'Insurrection' and subsequent colonization of them at Tarentum.
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Role of the Parthenai...?
Kept the population up with Spartan women, when the Spartiates were at war. They often rebelled.
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On second day: Spartans offered dinner to all, inc. Helots. Showed recognition of solidarity- Sparta couldn't survive without Helots. (Polycrates)
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When a king died...?
Expected to mourn- beat themselves. Women wore black.
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Owned and protected them. Relied heavily on them: to injure/kill one without cause was a serious crime.
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Property of their 'Spartan master.' Instead, property of the state.
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Had no rights, could not vote. State could send them anywhere/dispose of them.
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In the army...?
Accompanied Spartiates. Often took part in skirmishes as light armed sligners.
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Specially chosen young Spartan boys would go out into the countryside to deal with the Helots. Plato thought this was part of the Spartiates' training.
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Upon taking office, the new Ephors would declare war on the Helots, so they could be killed without issue.
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Helot revolt and seige at Mt Ithome.
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