A means...?
Additive genetic effects (independent source of variation)
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D/I means...?
Dominant/Epistatic genetic effects (interactive genetics: outcome of one gene only comes about through interaction with other gene)
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E means...?
Unique environment effect
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G X E means...?
Gene*environment interaction
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GEr means...?
Gene_environment correlation
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P means...?
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How do you work out someone's phenotype?
A + D/I + C +E + G X E + GEr. This is additional genetic effects, plus epistatic genetic effects, plus shared environment effect, plus unique environment effect, plus gene*env. interaction, plus gene-env. correlation
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Who said that only the environment causes personality?
Evan Charney
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Who said the only genes cause personality?
Steven Pinker
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If a phenotype is equally expressed in high qualities identical as it is in non-identical twins, what does this show has the effect on that phenotype?
Shared environment
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What is the equal environments assumption?
That differences in phenotypes of nonidentical twins compared to identical twins are purely due to differences in number of genes shared.
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How can the EEA be violated?
If identical twins have more similar environments than nonidentical twins. In this scenario the effect of addtional genetic effects would be overestimated.
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What is the "no gene-environment interaction" assumption?
That in twin studies the environment doesn't interact with their genes
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In what ways can the no G X E assumption be violated?
If genes influence sensitivity to particular aspects of the environment. In this case additional genetic effects will be overestimated. Also the environment could control the expression of some genes. Unique environment effects are underestimated
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What is the definition of genetic determinism?
If the environment is made equal then the only variation left will be genetically determined.
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What do adoptive studies do that traditional twin studies don't?
Take account of shared environments to overcome EEA
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What does molecular genetics of twins predict?
That DZ twins who share more than 50% of genes will be more similar.
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What is it called when you study molecular genetics in a whole population to see if those with more overlapping genes are more similar?
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What is the serial approach to association studies?
Find specific genetic markers that predict specific traits by doing candidate gene association
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What is the parallel approach to association studies?
Look ar one genetic variant at a time to see if any chromsonal positions reach a manhattan skyline using Genome Wide Association Study
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So far, several candidate genes have been found for what disorders using GWAS?
SZ and MAOA link to aggression.
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What is the problem with candidate gene association?
Though specific genes can be linked to behaviours, such as a gene for dopamine accounting for sensation-seeking, the variance one gene can account for is very small and they tend to lack replicability
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What is GWAS good for?
Diagnosing many physical disorders such as chrons disease. But when it comes to psychological traits, only get amsterdam plots.
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What is multivariant genetics used for?
To find shared phenotypes for difference conditions and social attitudes
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Give 2 psychiatric disorders that have been found to have overlapping genes contributing to them using multivariante genetics
Major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder
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Give 3 personality traits that have been found to have overlapping genes contributing to them?
Favouritism, authoritarianism, and openness.
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Overall how much do genes contribute to personality, compared to unique environment?
Genes: 40%, unique environment: 60%
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What did Gary find out about prejudice?
Identical twins had higher concordance on social attitudes than non-identical showing A has the biggest effect, and there was barely any influence of C.
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What are Turkheimer's laws?
All behavioural traits are heritable, genetic influences are always greater than shared environments (being raised in same family has little effect), and a substantial proportion of variation is not accounted for by genes or the shared environment
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One problem posed for using genes to explain attitudes is that attitudes change over time. Why might this not be such a bad thing?
An environmental influence will always be found even though genes remain the same. And we're not looking at shifts in means for single people but individual differences in the population.
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Why isn't violating EEA such a big problem as it initially seems for using genes to explain attitudes?
Genome Complex Trait Analysis has found that some genes have a highly significant impact. There is only a very small difference between identical twins reared apart and those reared together. So shared environment has very little influence.
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What is the basis of personality systems theory?
Effects of gene variants controlling NTs, neural connections and hormones bias thinking processes which affects emotional cognition and this affects internal values which influence specific attitudes (this links to Pinker)
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What did Thompson (2001) find when he compared fMRI of identical and non-identical twins?
Identical twins had greater similarity of grey matter
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According to Hibar et al which chromosomes have variants for the amygdala?
8 and 16
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According to Hibar et al which chromosomes have variants for the hippocampus?
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According to Hibar et al which chromosomes have variants for the putamen?
14, 18 and 20
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Which brain areas tend to be larger in extraverts?
the amygdala and medial orbitofrontal cortex
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What did Lewis (2014) find with regards to extraversion?
Identical twins who were extroverted had larger amygdalas, so the genes contributing to amygdala size and extraversion seem to overlap
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What is the problem with Lewis's study?
The genes contributing to amygdala size only account for a small proportion of the extroversion phenotype
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How does the seretonin transporter gene variant increase the risk of anxiety and depression?
It disrupts the connectivity between the amygdala and perigennal cingulate cortex
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What did Percanon find out about the seretonin transporter gene?
Those with a short allele variant had reduced limbic region connectivity
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What is oxytocin?
A peptide produced in the hypothalamus that is an NT and a hormone
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What is Carsten et al (2011) find out about oxytocin?
Those with higher oxtocin levels had higher in-group favouritism
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What happens in neutral selection?
Variants go unseen because they have no negative effect on reproduction
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Why is neutral selection unlikely to apply to sz?
Those with SZ have 58% lower reproductive success rates.
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What is the risk of having SZ if your identical twin has SZ?
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What is the risk of having a mood disorder?
43% for an identical twin
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What is the risk of having the traits of autism if your identical twin has it?
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Why can balancing selection be a good thing for mental disorders?
It can create an advantage in a particular niche, for example siblings of those with SZ are 1.4% more likely to have a creative career
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What does frequency dependent selection do?
Explains individual differences in personality traits
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What does evolutionary psychology assume?
That there is no variation in personality because it assumes psychological adaptations should be fixed.
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What does behaviour genetics do?
It looks at variable genetic matter to explain individual differences.
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What are SNPs?
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. They are inserted when a genetic sequence is duplicated and are implicated in gene expression. There are millions in the human genome.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


D/I means...?


Dominant/Epistatic genetic effects (interactive genetics: outcome of one gene only comes about through interaction with other gene)

Card 3


E means...?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


G X E means...?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


GEr means...?


Preview of the front of card 5
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