SPA TB8 Lecture 3

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: May2714
  • Created on: 17-05-16 15:43
What are ethics?
A consensus of manners/customs/shared values within a social group
1 of 29
What are morals?
Your personal code of conduct within the ethical constraints of the group
2 of 29
What is deontology?
The idea that moral rules pertain to absolute rights
3 of 29
What is consequentialism?
The moral value of an action is a function of its consequences alone
4 of 29
What is utilitarianism?
Endorsing harmful actions for the greater good
5 of 29
Which brain areas showed more activity in response to non-moral unpleasant than non-moral neutral statements?
Lateral OFC, left amygdala, and bilateral visual cortex
6 of 29
Which brain areas showed more activity in response to non-moral unpleasant then moral statements?
Left lateral OFC, and left amygdala
7 of 29
Which brain area showed more activity in response to moral than non-moral unpleasant statements?
Left medial OFC
8 of 29
In Moll et al.'s (2002) study, moral statements were judged as higher on what measure?
Moral content
9 of 29
In Moll et al.'s (2002) study, moral and non-moral unpleasant statements were rated as higher than neutral or scrambled statements on what measure?
Emotional content
10 of 29
In Moll et al.'s (2002) study, were moral statements or non-moral unpleasant statements rated as having more emotional content?
Moral statements
11 of 29
What is the dual process theory of moral judgement?
Rationalist view that morality is a cognitive function, which distinguishes between personal and impersonal moral judgements
12 of 29
Which would most likely lead to harm to another: personal moral dilemmas (PMD) or impersonal moral dilemmas (IMD)?
Personal moral dilemmas (PMD)
13 of 29
What is the 'trolley problem'?
IMD where you are required to flip a leaver that changes the track on which a runaway trolley is heading; one direction will lead to the death of a loved one, while the other will lead to the death of 5 people
14 of 29
What is the 'footbridge trolley problem'?
PMD where a runaway trolley will kill 5 people unless you push a large man off a bridge to stop the trolley
15 of 29
Which areas of the brain show more activity in response to PMD than IMD?
Medial prefrontal gyrus (BA 9/10), posterior cingulate (BA 31), and angular gyrus (BA 39)
16 of 29
Which areas of the brain show more activity in response to IMD than PMD?
DLPFC (BA 46) and parietal lobe (BA 7/40)
17 of 29
To decide an action is appropriate, which takes significantly longer: PMD or IMP?
Personal moral dilemmas (PMD)
18 of 29
What PMD distinguishes between difficult and easy PMDs?
The 'crying baby problem' and 'infanticide problem'
19 of 29
A short response time to the crying baby problem is suggestive of what?
A cognitive response
20 of 29
A short response time to the infanticide problem is suggestive of what?
An emotional response
21 of 29
The utilitarian/yes judgement in the difficult dilemma shows greater activation in what brain areas?
Anterior cingulate (BA 32) and DLPFC (BA 10/46)
22 of 29
Increasing reaction times in varied brain regions is suggestive of what?
Emotion may be a driving force in moral judgements – automatic sense of what is right. Cognition also plays an important role – resolving the conflict between initial emotional response and utilitarian response
23 of 29
Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) results in what behaviours?
Spared ability to detect the implications of a social situation but an inability to make appropriate decisions in real life situations
24 of 29
What is the IOWA gambling task?
4 decks of cards and the aim is to win as much money as you can. Each card has a value for financial gain or loss that are not distributed evenly throughout the decks, you choose which deck to take a card from
25 of 29
How do patients with vMPFC damage and patients with amygdala damage respond to the IOWA gambling task?
Do not show anticipatory autonomic responses; suggesting that they may be able to infer that a deck has more gains/losses but they do not adapt or adjust their behaviour
26 of 29
Are vMPFC damaged patients more or less likely to endorse PMD than controls?
More
27 of 29
In response to what type of judgement do vMPFC damaged patients act in the same way as controls?
Low conflict judgements
28 of 29
What did Koenigs et al. (2007) show about the processing of moral dilemmas in vMPFC damaged patients?
vMPFC damaged patients have knowledge of moral and social norms but there is a lack of emotional input
29 of 29

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are morals?

Back

Your personal code of conduct within the ethical constraints of the group

Card 3

Front

What is deontology?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is consequentialism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is utilitarianism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Morality resources »