South Africa unit 2 revision

why did opposition grow?
ANC split into PAC; mobilised more people, Opposition to pass laws as fines were worth two weeks wages
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Growth of opposition to pass laws in Sharpeville?
Local PAC branch; set up a task force, Group areas act; 10,000 people moved to sharpeville increasing rent prices
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Sharpeville massacre?
21st march 1960; 5,000 protestors gathered outisde the police headquarters, Armed police reinforcements turned up lead by Lieutenant Pienaar, Police opened fire on the protestors killing 69 people
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Consequences of the Sharpeville massacre?
Photos went worldwide, UN condemned the massacre, ANC continued with their planned protest on june 28th; Albert Luthuli burnt his pass infornt on the media, State of emergency declared; Mandela and other leaders arrested, Verwoerd shot not killed
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Macmillan 'wind of change' speech?
Macmillan toured africa and delivered a speech to the NP; he said that the government must accpet the changes that were happening to the country during this time
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Significance of the speech?
encourgaed anti-apartheid groups but did not influence the government
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why did SA become a republic?
NP had always advocated a republic, Verwoerd confident that he could get a majority of whites to support a repbulic
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Becoming a republic?
White SAs voted 52-48 in favour of a republic, Black opposition rejected the decision, 1961 SA left Commonwealth after it refused to allow diplomatic representation for newly independent African countries
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causes of Mpondoland?
Government took control of forests in Mpondoland, Botha Sigcau was the governement imposed chief
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Events of Mpondoland?
March 1960; house of chief's advisor burned, June 1960; initially rebels stopped betterment and were allowed own chiefs, June 1960; Rumours that rebels would attack the chief's home, Government sent in troops-11 killed
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Results of Mpondoland?
June-November rebellion continued; 23 rebels hanged, Rebels in touch with ANC
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What was the MK?
Militant group set up by Mandela and Slovo, USSR made big contributions to MK; 5 African men sent to china to train in Guerilla Warfare, Targeted communication sites
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What was the Poqo?
PAC militant group that was not focused on non-human targets, Killed a white family in a caravan, dealt with more harshly by Goverment; 62 Poqo members hanged during the 60s
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Impact of MK and Poqo?
Little organisation, little training, few bases in neighbourign countries
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Rivonia Trial?
10 leaders of ANC on trial; Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment
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Impact of Rivonia trial?
leaders imprisoned so ANC became disjointed, Mandela gave a four hour speech calling for a non-racial SA
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International opposition to apartheid?
AAM founded in London; Trevor Huddlestone - vice chairperson had lived in sophiatown, SA excluded from Olympics, Basil D'Oliviera cricket incident
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Impact of exile on ANC?
Oliver Tambo went into exile in 1906 to gain international support, USSR and Sweden both gave money to support the ANC, Tambo gave ANC international legitimacy,
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Economic improvements in SA?
agriculture and manufacturing grew, Employment rose, Gold mine employment grew
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Impact of international investment?
Strong british investment e.g. Barclays, Car production strong, Income for Whites rose, Average economic growth was 5-6% a year,
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Economic negatives for black SAs?
Skilled work was 'white only', no heavy investment in Homelands/Bantustans, Blacks could not be in charge of whites
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How were the Bantustans developed?
First self-governing homeland in Transkei, elections had to occur before Bantustans could be independent, Transkei became the model for other Bantustans, brought economic benefits
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Importance of diplomatic ties?
NP shielded by SW Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland all economically dependent on SA, Vorster was pragmatic in diplomatic matters, Maintained strong relations with the western world due to war against communism
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Vorster's use of police power?
Increased police powers when he was Minister of justce, under threat of communism tighter security legislation was needed, Police given legal right to detain suspects without trial for 180 days; increased to indefinetly by Terrorism Act
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John Vorster Square?
Police HQ in Johannesburg; became famous for violence and torture of suspects, 8 detainees died at John Vorster Square
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What was BOSS?
Bureau of State Security; set up to coordinate the work of defence and police forces
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Growth of opposition to pass laws in Sharpeville?


Local PAC branch; set up a task force, Group areas act; 10,000 people moved to sharpeville increasing rent prices

Card 3


Sharpeville massacre?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Consequences of the Sharpeville massacre?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Macmillan 'wind of change' speech?


Preview of the front of card 5
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