- Created by: Lauren246810
- Created on: 25-10-18 09:42
1 of 145
often understood as the non-physical essence of a person
2 of 145
awareness or perception
3 of 145
a subject that has different properties attributed to it
4 of 145
the belief that reality can be divided into 2 distinct parts e.g. good and evil/ physical and non-physical
5 of 145
the belief that the mind and body both exist as two separate and distinct realities
6 of 145
a questioning approach that does not take assumptions for granted
7 of 145
the belief that only physical matter exists, and the mind can be explained in physical terms as chemical activity in the brain
8 of 145
otherwise known as identity theory. The view that mental events are identical to physical occurences in the brain
9 of 145
a problem of language that arises when things are talked about as if they belong to one category when in fact they belong to another
10 of 145
human beings are made of one substance, the body
11 of 145
12 of 145
What is the soul often referred to as?
13 of 145
The 'soul' usually means one particular aspect of the 'self', what is this?
the part that is capable of having a relationship with God and carries the possibility of a life after death
14 of 145
The soul is the part of the person that deals with...
mental and spiritual events
15 of 145
16 of 145
What were Plato's views on the body?
temporary, physical, material part of the person
17 of 145
What were his views on the soul?
essential, immaterial aspect of the person. it is temporarily united with the body
18 of 145
What was Plato?
19 of 145
In which work does he put forward his views about the soul through the mouth of Socrates?
20 of 145
What did Plato want to show about Socrates?
he had not failed on his mission to educate people- his soul would continue to immorality after death
21 of 145
What did Socrates argue about the soul after it separates from the body?
it is undisturbed by distractions of constant bodily demands so it can reach its highest state
22 of 145
Why did Plato and Socrates think that it was contradictory for the soul to die?
it is the life-giving essence so it must always have life itself
23 of 145
When did Plato think the soul was embodied and disembodied?
Embodies on earth in the body and disembodied in the Realm of the Forms
24 of 145
How did Plato think that every quality comes into being?
from its own opposite
25 of 145
Give an example of this
something is big because there are 'smaller' things
26 of 145
Plato uses this argument to draw the conclusion that...
life comes from death, and death comes from life in an endless chain of birth, death and rebirth
27 of 145
Plato uses an argument in which dialogue to support this?
28 of 145
Explain what happens in this dialogue
a slave boy with no education is given a geometry puzzle to solve, he is able to work out the answer to the problem
29 of 145
What does this show?
he must have been using knowledge he already had before birth. Therefore his soul must have once lived in the perfect world of Forms
30 of 145
When Plato wrote about the soul which metaphor did he use?
31 of 145
What are the two horses and why do we need them?
apetite and emotion which pull us along and motivate us
32 of 145
What is the charioteer and what does this ensure?
reason, it makes sure that appetite and emotion work together in a rational direction
33 of 145
What could happen if we let our emotions or appetite get the better of us?
if emotions take control we could act inappropriately and if our appetite takes control we could over-indulge
34 of 145
Plato view on the soul is therefore called a...
35 of 145
At the end of Republic which story does Plato introduce?
the 'Myth of Er'
36 of 145
This story is told through whose mouth?
37 of 145
What happened to Er on the battlefield?
he died, 10 days later his body had not decomposed. On the 12th day his body was placed on a funeral pyre and he suddenly came back to life
38 of 145
What did he tell to the listeners? 1/2
in the afterlife he appeared in front of judges. The morally good were rewarded and the immoral were punished with pain 10x what they had inflicted. Some were so bad they were never to be released from underground punishment
39 of 145
He saw how souls choose themselves a new life on earth before being reborn. Once they had chosen they drank a special liquid which made them forget the afterlife and their previous life
40 of 145
Only which people benefited from the circle of life and why?
The philosophical who understood the importance of choosing a life of peace and justice
41 of 145
What did the others do?
they ricocheted between happiness and misery, reward and punishment
42 of 145
43 of 145
What was Aristotle in regards to soul, mind and body?
44 of 145
What did he think the soul was?
45 of 145
What problem did Aristotle see between a newborn baby, toddler and adult?
he asked how we can consider them all the 'same person'?
46 of 145
What did this lead him to believe about the 'substance' and physical body?
the physical body changes but the substance remains the same- it is a continuing identity
47 of 145
How is his argument more materialistic than Plato's?
he thought the soul was not an invisible part of the person, but it included the matter and structure of the body along with its functions
48 of 145
Which cause of the person did Aristotle think the soul was? explain this
the soul is the formal cause of the person- it gives living things their essence
49 of 145
How does he think living and non-living things are distinguished? how does this relate to the soul?
by their capabilities e.g. move, breathe, grow, reproduce etc. these capabilities define the soul. the soul is what distinguishes a living thing from a dead thing
50 of 145
In De Anima what did he say about the soul/psyche?
'the soul is in some sense the principle of animal life'
51 of 145
What 3 types of souls did Aristotle believe in?
vegetative/'nutritive', appetitive/'perceptive' and higher degree/intellectual
52 of 145
What has vegetative souls and what are they capable of?
Plants, they are able to get nourishment and ensure reproduction
53 of 145
What has appetitive souls and what are they capable of?
animals, they can react to stimuli and distinguish between pleasure and pain
54 of 145
What has intellectual souls and what are they capable of?
Humans, ability to reason, tell the difference between right and wrong and we can decide and think
55 of 145
Explain Aristotle's view on the soul using his metaphor of an eye
If the eye were a person its soul is the capacity to see. The capacity to see cannot exist without the eye just as the soul cannot exist without the body
56 of 145
Explain his metaphor of a block of wax
the soul is inseparable from the living body just as a shape stamped into a block of wax is inseparable from the matter of the wax
57 of 145
THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM
THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM
58 of 145
How are machines fundamentally different to humans?
humans have consciousness
59 of 145
What awareness do animals have that machines don't have?
60 of 145
Explain how self-awareness and emotions are interlinked
we know when we are experiencing certain emotions, we can remember the last time we felt an emotion and we can imagine what it would be like to experience an emotion
61 of 145
How could machines support a dualist argument?
we differ from machines because we have a mind. even if we perform the same physical actions as a machine we have thoughts and intentions behind them
62 of 145
THE MIND AND BODY
THE MIND AND BODY
63 of 145
What is often understood as the mind?
part of person has has thoughts, feelings intentions. Allows us to make choices and judgements and have memories
64 of 145
What does the mind enable us to interpret?
data from our senses that we can experience
65 of 145
What is often understood as the body?
the physical matter that humans are made of
66 of 145
67 of 145
SUBSTANCE DUALISM UBSTANCE DUALISM
68 of 145
Substance dualism is the name given to the view that the mind and body are...
separate substances which both exist
69 of 145
What is a substance? Give the example of a rug
A subject which has various properties. For example a rug is a substance and has the properties of being soft and red
70 of 145
Can properties exist on their own? Give the example of a rug
No, e.g. there is no such thing as the property of being soft which exists separately from soft things like rugs
71 of 145
Substance dualists see the mind as a substance, what are its properties?
thoughts, intentions, feelings, emotions
72 of 145
They only see the body as a substance, what are its properties?
tall, young, freckled
73 of 145
The body is different from the mind because it has the property that philosophers call...
74 of 145
What does extension mean?
it takes up space and has measurements
75 of 145
76 of 145
When did Rene Descartes live?
77 of 145
When was he profoundly influential?
78 of 145
What was this?
a time when the conventional medieval tradition of thought were losing their popularity. Being replaced by experimental methods and reasoning
79 of 145
What did he claim in his earlier work 'Le Monde'?
all matter in the universe is essentially the same type of thing. There were no 'earthly substances' in contrast to 'heavenly substances' as medieval thinkers had said
80 of 145
What did he say about the earth?
the earth was not uniquely special in it's construction. it was one small part of the universe which all operated on the same fundamental physical laws of nature
81 of 145
Why did he have to be careful about the things he said?
In 1663 Galileo Galilei was condemned by the Catholic Church for saying the sun, not the earth, was the centre of the universe
82 of 145
Which book did he release anonymously?
Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting Reason and Reaching the Truth in Sciences
83 of 145
When did he release it?
84 of 145
Which book did he release in 1641?
Meditations on First Philosophy
85 of 145
What was Descartes aim of this book?
demonstrate a clear distinction between the 'soul' (mind) and body
86 of 145
Which method did he adopt of extreme questioning?
87 of 145
How did he use this hyperbolic doubt?
he thought of all the things that he thought could be known, and rejected them if there was any doubt over their certain truth
88 of 145
Why did he reject our sense experience?
our senses can deceive us, there are times we think we can hear or see things that aren't really there
89 of 145
Why did he reject mathematical axioms?
our reasoning could be faulty or God could be tricking us
90 of 145
What was the only thing that he could be sure of in the end?
the fact that he was thinking sceptically. He could not doubt his existence as a thinker because he would have to exist as a thinker in order to do the doubting
91 of 145
What did he call this?
92 of 145
What was his most famous conclusion at the end of this argument?
'I think therefore I am'
93 of 145
what is this first certainty in Latin?
cogito, ergo sum
94 of 145
how does the 'first certainty' support his dualist views?
he knew for certain he had a mind, but he could not be certain he had a body. Therefore they must be two different substances
95 of 145
Where did he think had something do with the connection between the mind and body?
the pineal gland
96 of 145
He thought the pineal gland contained...
air-like 'animal spirits'
97 of 145
What did he think these animal spirits controlled?
imagination, sense perception, bodily movement and memory
98 of 145
In a letter in 1640 what did he describe the pineal gland as?
'the principle seat of the soul'
99 of 145
Why did he think the pineal gland was so special?
he observed other parts of the head are 'double' e.g. 2 eyes, 2 ears. But we have just one pineal gland which is central
100 of 145
101 of 145
What do property dualists hold?
There is only one kind of physical substance, but it has 2 distinct kinds of properties; mental and physical
102 of 145
What are the physical properties of the brain?
size, mass and shape
103 of 145
What are the mental properties?
opinions, emotions, memories
104 of 145
What is one popular kind of property dualism?
105 of 145
What is this?
the idea that physical things become more complex, and new properties 'emerge' from them which cannot be reduced simply to the material
106 of 145
Who held this view?
John Stuart Mill
107 of 145
108 of 145
What other names does reductive materialism have?
identity theory and type physicalism
109 of 145
It is a theory which says that the mind is not distinct from...
the physical brain but is identical with it
110 of 145
How does it say that mental states correspond to the brain?
mental states can be classified into different types e.g. memory, pain, happiness, etc. These correspond to different activities in different parts of the brain
111 of 145
What happens when chemical reactions happen in a particular part of the brain?
we feel an emotion, make a decision or remember a fact depending on the type of mental event that corresponds to that part of the brain
112 of 145
What did Boring assert and give an example
mental and physical events of the brain are identical. e.g. its not the case that when X happen in the brain we feel Y, but that X and Y are the same thing
113 of 145
114 of 145
When did Gilbert Ryle live?
115 of 145
Which book did he put his views of the mind and body in?
The Concept of Mind
116 of 145
He argued that any talk of the 'self' or 'soul' existing beyond the physical body is...
a mistake in the way that we use language
117 of 145
What example did he use as an example of mistake in language?
someone watching a cricket match and asking where the team spirit is as if it was something extra to the observable game, when it is actually just the way that the people in the game interact with each other
118 of 145
He criticised Descartes and said that talk of a separate mind and body was like a...
'ghost in the machine'
119 of 145
What did Ryle call the traditional mind and body distinction?
a 'category mistake'
120 of 145
Why does he call it this?
because it tries to treat the mind and body as if they are different things of a similar logical kind when intact they are not in the same logical category
121 of 145
RICHARD DAWKIN S
122 of 145
What was Richard Dawkins in relations to the mind/body problem?
123 of 145
What did Richard Dawkin's say is the only thing to exist?
124 of 145
What did he say humans are in The Selfish Gene (1976)?
'survival machines- robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes'
125 of 145
Why did he think humans were similar to animals?
they are vehicles of genes which are only interested in replicating themselves to survive to the next generation
126 of 145
How did he distinguish between different ideas of the soul?
he wrote of a 'soul one' and a 'soul two'
127 of 145
What is 'soul one'?
viewpoint that claims the soul is a spiritual supernatural part of a person which is capable of knowing God
128 of 145
What does Dawkin's think about this view?
he rejects it
129 of 145
What is 'soul two'?
Aristotelian understadning- relates to someones personality and individuality
130 of 145
What does Dawkin's think about 'soul two'?
he accepts it
131 of 145
What does he say about life in his book River Out of Eden (1995)?
'Life is just bytes and bytes and bytes of digital information'
132 of 145
133 of 145
how can a disembodied soul see the Forms? Isn't experience linked to senses?
134 of 145
'bodily act is an act of man qua spirit'- description of bodily act show how things are working and not why. Eg typing fingers are moving but doesn't explain why. Mind is part of the body- we can't have one without the other
135 of 145
Behaviourist. Human thoughts are learned behaviour due to conditioning and reinforcing. if an action leads to a good result it will be rewarded and repeated, and vice versa for a bad action
136 of 145
What was Watson and Rayner's experiment?
Little Albert not scared of white rat but cried when metal bar was struck behind his head. The white rat was introduced overtime the bar was struck. In the end they only had to show him the rat and he would burst into tears
137 of 145
What does this experiment show?
emotions such as fear can be conditioned into people,
138 of 145
What are Anthony Flew's views?
any talk of life after death is nonsensical. Eg Lewis Carroll Alices Adventures in Wonderland the cheshire cat disappears and only its grin is left- this is humorous because a grin cannot exist without a face for it to be on
139 of 145
How does he attack substance dualism specifically?
to speak of a mind or soul as a 'substance' is a misuse of the term. To refer to the mind or personality is to refer to the behaviour of the physical person.
140 of 145
In which book does Richard Swinburne explain his beliefs on the soul?
The Evolution of the Soul (1997)
141 of 145
What does he argue?
we have fundamental truths that cannot be explained physically. Our most significant aspects that give us our identity are not physical. It is because of the soul that we know right and wrong and make free choices. Souls can survive death
142 of 145
What is Keith Ward's book called?
Defending the Soul (1992)
143 of 145
What does Ward argue?
without a belief in the soul morality becomes a matter of personal choice. We need to recognise God given soul to achieve special dignity of being human rather than animal. without the soul we lack a sense of final purpose
144 of 145
What does the anglican priest Brian Hebblethwaite say about artificial intelligence?
it 'has shown no signs whatsoever of manifesting even rudimentary forms of awareness, still less affection, imagination, rational thought, or volition
145 of 145
Other cards in this set
often understood as the non-physical essence of a person