Solid Structures

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 13-04-16 19:53
What increases the bonding energy in ionic halides?
The oppositely charged ions pack around one to increase the bonding energy by maximising electrostatic attraction and minimising repulsion.
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How many ions are cations surrounded by?
Each cation is surrounded by 6/8 ions and vice versa, the numbers depend on the relative sizes of the anion to cation.
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What are the crystal co-ordination numbers for CsCl and NaCl?
The crystal co-ordination numbers are 8:8 for CsCl and 6:6 for NaCl.
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What's the covalent arrangement in diamond?
Tetrahedral strong covalent arrangement, a 3D structure.
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What's the covalent arrangement in graphite?
Layers of covalent hexagons, held together by weak forces, allows layers to slide over each other.
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What's the covalent arrangement in solid iodine?
Strong covalent bonds hold the iodine atoms together in the I2 molecule. Weak intermolecular forces hold the I2 units together in the molecular crystal.
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What's the covalent arrangement in ice?
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold them together in a open tetrahedral structure, strong bonds within water molecules are polar covalent.
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What do atoms of metallic elements do?
They each donate one or more electrons to form a delocalised sea.
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What does the delocalised sea do?
The sea surrounded the close-packed positive ions so formed binds them together due to the attraction of opposite charges.
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What are giant ionic structures?
They're hard, brittle and high-melting due to the strong ionic bonds in which they have.
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What's the electrical conduction of solid states and molten salts/aqueous solutions?
No electrical conduction in solid states as ions are fixed in the crystal. Molten salts/aqueous solutions conduct as they're free to move when a voltage is applied.
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What does ionic solids solubility depend on?
Energetics or chemical reaction factors, however, most ionic chlorides are soluble.
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What are some factors of diamond and graphite?
They both have a high melting point. They're insoluble in water.
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What is the difference between diamond and graphite in terms of structure/arrangement?
Diamond is hard, each atom is covalently bonded to 4 others, forming a 3D structure. Weak layer structure in graphite renders it softer, a lubricant.
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What solid structure conducts electricity?
Diamond and iodine don't conduct electricity, graphite does.
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Why is Iodine soft and volatile?
The I2 units are held together only by weak van der Waals forces?
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What does electron delocalisation in metals give?
Good electrical and thermal conductivity. Melting temp and hardness increase with the number of electrons per atom involved in bonding.
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What are the number of bonding electrons in the 3 elements and their melting temperatures?
1 BE in Na - MT 98 2 BE in Ca - MT 850 5 BE in V - MT 1900
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many ions are cations surrounded by?

Back

Each cation is surrounded by 6/8 ions and vice versa, the numbers depend on the relative sizes of the anion to cation.

Card 3

Front

What are the crystal co-ordination numbers for CsCl and NaCl?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What's the covalent arrangement in diamond?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What's the covalent arrangement in graphite?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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