2 Stats showing ethnic minorities being over represented in prisons?
1.Blacks 2.8% of pop, but 11% of prison pop 2.Asians 4.7% of pop but 6% of prison pop
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Victim surveys in relation to crime?
Ask people what crimes they've committed. Gain info about ethnicity & offending. Show crime is intra-ethnic; takes place within not between ethnic groups. In 90% where victims are white, 1 offender is also white
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4 limitations of victim surveys & crime?
1.Rely on victims memory. Bowling/Phillips=White victims over identify blacks 2.Only cover personal crimes, 1/5 of all crimes 3.Exclude U16's-minority ethnic groups high proportion of young 4.Exclude crimes of organisations, tell nothing of white col
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Self report studies in relation to crime?
Ask people to describe own behaviour. Graham & Bowling = Blacks (43%) & whites (44%) similar rates of offending, Indians & Bangladeshi's (13%) low
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Findings of self report studies?
Challenge stereotype of blacks being more likely than whites to offend, though they support Asians less likely to offend
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Limitations of self report questionnaires?
Hindelang et al - Black males with c/records less likely to report offences already known to police. Tend not to ask about serious offences where evidence of black offending. Exclude prisons, so under rep non-white offenders
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Phillips & Bowling - Allegations of oppressive policing of minority ethnic communities = mass stop & search, excessive surveillance, armed raids, failure to repsond effectively to racist violence
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Stop & search?
Minorities more likely to be stopped & searched. Blacks 7 times more likely. Since terrorism act Asians 3 times more likely. Phillips & Bowling see minority ethnic communities as 'over policed & under protected' = little faith in police
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3 possible reasons for disproportionate use of stop & search against minority ethnic groups?
1.Police racism 2.Ethnic differences in offending 3.Demographic factors
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Police racism?
Macpherson report on Stephen Lawrence concluded institutional racism within met police. Phillips & Bowling=Officers hold negative stereotypes=deliberate targeting for stop & search. Are endorsed & upheld by 'canteen culture' of rank officers
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Ethnic differences in offending?
Low discretion stops = Police act on relevant info about specific offence = victims description. High discretion stops = Police act without intelligence = Stereotypes & discrimination
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Demographic factors?
Ethnic minorities over represented in pop. Groups most likely to be stopped like young, unemployed. More likely to be stopped regardless of ethnicity but have higher proportion of minorities in them
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Arrests & cautions?
England & Wales show 2006/7 arrest rates for blacks 3.6 times more. Blacks & Asians less likely to receive caution. Minorities likely to deny offence. Not admitting means more likely to be charged
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CPS responsible for bringing case to court. Decide whether there is realistic prospect of conviction/public interest. Suggest CPS more likely to drop cases against ethnic minorities. Bowling & Phillips = because evidence weaker & stereotyped
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Minorities more likely to elect for trial in crown court rather than magistrates court due to mistrust of magistrates impartiality. Crown can impose more severe sentences if convicted
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Black & Asian defendants less likely to be found guilty; 60% of white defendants found guilty against 52% blacks. Suggests discrimination. Police/CPS bringing weaker cases against ethnic minorities are thrown out by courts
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In 2006/7 68% of blacks were given custodial sentences compared to 55% whites. Blacks average 3 months longer in prison
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Pre-sentence reports?
Hudson & Bramhall = PSR allow for unwitting discrimination. Reports on Asians less remorseful than whites offenders. 'Demonising' of Muslims
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In 2007 1/4 of the male pop were from minorities, 15% black & 7% Asian. 7.4 per 1,000 black in jail, 1.7 per 1,000 Asians & 1.4 per 1,000 whites in UK. In US 2 out of 5 prisoners held in local jails are black
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Left realism explanations for ethnic differences in stats?
Stats represent real differences in rates of offending
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Stats are social construct resulting from racist labelling & discrimination in criminal justice system
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Left realism?
Lea & Young=Differences in stats reflect real differences. See crime as product of relative deprivation/subculture/marginalisation. Racism=marginalisation & eco exclusion of ethnic minorities/unemployment/poverty/poor housing. Media=deprivation
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Left realism response?
Formation of delinquent subcultures, by young unemployed black males. Produces utilitarian crime, theft/robbery to cope with deprivation. Marginalised=no organisation to represent=frustration to produce non-utilitarian crimes
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Lea & Young on police?
Police act in racist ways = Unjustified criminalisation. Dont believe discriminatory policing fully explains stat differences. 90% of crimes known are reported by public not by police. If police act discriminatory, unlikely to account for ethnic diff
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Criticisms of Lea & Young?
Arrest rates for Asians may be lower than blacks not because they're less likely to offend but as police stereotype 2 groups differently. Blacks=dangerous Asians=passive. Changed since 9/11 as Asians now seen dangerous=rising criminalisation
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Lea & Young on explanation of stats?
We cant explain diff between minorities in terms of police racism EG Blacks have higher rate of criminalisation than Asians. Police would be selective in racism-against blacks but not Asians. Stats represent real diff in offending between groups
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Gilroy & the myth of black criminality?
Argues black criminality is myth by racist stereotypes. Reality= no more criminal than others. But as result of police & criminal justice system acting on stereotypes, minorities criminalised = greater numbers in official stats
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Gilroys view?
Ethnic minority crime seen as political resistence about racist society. Holds similar view to critical criminology, arguing w/c crime is political resistance to capitalism
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British Colonies?
Blacks/Asians in UK originated in former Brit Colonies, where anti imperialist struggles taught how to resist oppression through riots etc. When facing racism in UK adopt same forms of struggle to defend, but political struggle criminalised by state
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2 criticisms of Gilroy by Lea & Young?
1.1st generation immigrants law abiding=unlikely passed down anti-colonial struggle to kids 2.Most crime intra-ethnic, so cant be seen as anti-colonial struggle against racism. Romanticises street crime as revolutionary
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Another criticism of Gilroy by Lea & Young?
Asian crime rates similar similar/lower than whites. If correct, police only racist to blacks and not Asians which is unlikely
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Hall et al - Policing the crisis?
Neo Marxist. 70's saw moral panic over black 'muggers'. Ruling class rule subordinate through consent. In crisis=more difficult. High inflation/unemployment provoked strikes. Opposition to capitalism=ruling class had to force control 'legitimately'
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Hall et al - moral panic?
Soon associated by police, media etc with black youth. Moral panic/crisis of capitalism linked. Myth of black mugger was used as a scapegoat to distract from unemployment & capitalism crisis
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3 criticisms of Hall et al?
1.Downes/Rock-Inconsistent in claiming black street crime not rising, but WAS rising due to unemployment 2.Dont show how capitalist crisis=moral panic, no evidence of public panic/blaming blacks 3.City residents fears of mugging not panicky but real
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Ethnicity & victimisation?
Until recent, ethnicity & crime largely over represent blacks. Now other issues occur=racist victimisation of ethnic minorities. Occurs when individual is selected as target due to race/ethnicity/religion= Stephen Lawrence case
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2 sources of information on racist victimisation?
1.Racist incidents-any incident perceived to be racist by victim or another person 2.Racially/religiously aggravated offences where offender is motivated by hostility towards members of racial/religious group
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3 points on extent & risk of victimisation in England & Wales
1.Police recorded 61,000 racist incidents in 06/7, mostly property damage/verbal harassment 2.Most incidents unreported. BCS 184,000 racially motivated incidents 3.Police recorded 42,600 racially/religiously aggravated offences. 10,600 prosecuted
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Method link - Interviews?
BCS=structured interviews. Ask what crimes theyve been victim of in 12 months. Includes racist incidents/aggravated offences. Large representative sample/high response rate. Trained interviewers/similar questions=reliable estimates. Relies on memory
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Differences in ethnic groups & victimisation?
For violent crime, young, male & unemployed linked with victimisation. Ethnic groups with high proportion of young men likely to have higher rates. Some factors like unemployment partly result of discrimination
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Drawbacks of stats on victimisation?
Dont capture victims experience. Sampson/Phillips not racist victimisation ongoing over time, repeated 'minor' instances of abuse/harassment interwoven with periodic physical violence. L/term psychological impact needs to be added to physical injury
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Responses to victimisation?
Ranged from situational crime prevention like fireproof doors & letterboxes, organised self defence campaigns aimed at physically defending neighbourhoods from racist attacks. Need to be understood as under protection by police
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Card 2


Victim surveys in relation to crime?


Ask people what crimes they've committed. Gain info about ethnicity & offending. Show crime is intra-ethnic; takes place within not between ethnic groups. In 90% where victims are white, 1 offender is also white

Card 3


4 limitations of victim surveys & crime?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Self report studies in relation to crime?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Findings of self report studies?


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