SOCIOLOGY TOPIC 4

HideShow resource information
Right realism?
Sees crime as growing problem destroying communities, undermining social cohesion & threatens society's work ethic. 0 tolerance of street crime/disorder. Criticise others for not offering practical solutions of rising crime.
1 of 38
Right realism on labelling theory and critical criminology?
Regard them as too sympathetic to criminals. Are solutions not sources
2 of 38
Right realist causes of crime?
Reject marxists idea of economic factors. Crime is product of 3 factor: Biological differences, inadequate socialisation & the underclass, & rational choice to offend
3 of 38
Biological differences?
Wilson & Hernstein. Biological differences between individuals make some more strongly predisposed to commit = personality traits like aggressiveness, risk taking etc put some at greater risk of offending. Main cause is low intelligence=biological
4 of 38
Socialisation & the underclass?
Effective socialisation decreases risk of crime as it involves learning self control & morals. Nuclear family is best agency of socialistation
5 of 38
Murray on socialisation & underclass?
Crime rates increasing because of growing underclass defined by deviant behaviour who fail to socialise their cildren properly. Underclass growing in USA & UK as result of welfare dependency
6 of 38
Murray on welfare state?
Generous revolution allows increasing numbers to depend on state. Decline of marriage & growth of single parents as women live off benefits. Ineffective socialisation agent for boys, lacking paternal role models=delinquents gaining status from crime
7 of 38
Rational choice theory?
Clarke- Decision to commit is choice based on likely consequences. Currently perceived costs are low so crime rate has increased. In their view, little risk of getting caught
8 of 38
Felson on rational choice theory?
Activity theory. For crime to occur, must be motivated offender, suitable target & absence of 'capable guardian'. Offenders assumed to act rationally so guardian likely to deter offending. Informal guardians more effective than police
9 of 38
Tackling crime?
Not fruitful to deal with causes as they cant easily be changed. Devise practical measures to make crime less attractive. Focus on control, containment & punishment
10 of 38
3 examples of tackling crime?
1.Wilson & Kellings broken windows 2.0 tolerance towards undesireable behaviour like prostetution. Policing streets so people feel safe 3.Crime prevention policies to reduce rewards & increase costs. Greater use of prisons
11 of 38
3 criticisms of right realism?
1.Ignores wider structural causes like poverty 2.Overstates offenders rationality. Explains some utilitarian crime but not violent 3.View criminals are rational actors conflicts its view its determined by biology/socialisation
12 of 38
3 more criticisms of right realism?
1.Preoccupied with petty street crime, ignores corporate crime, more harmful 2.0 tolerance gives police freedom to discriminate against ethnic minority youth=displacement of crime elsewhere 3.Over emphasises control of disorder not tackling causes
13 of 38
2 factors left realism acted as a response to?
1.The need to take rising crime rate seriously & roduce practical solutions 2.Influence of right realism on government policy
14 of 38
Overview of left realism?
Jock Young-Like marxists see society as unequal. Reformist not revolutionary. Believe in gradual social change not violent overthrow. Need to develop explanation of crime leading to practical strategies to reduce it not wait for revolution/utopia
15 of 38
Accuse which 3 groups for not taking crime seriously?
1.Traditional marxists-concentrated on crimes of powerful, neglect w/c crimes 2.Neo marxists- Romanticise w/c criminals as robin hoods. w/c victimise w/c 3.Labelling theorists-w/c criminals victims of labelling by social agents, neglects real victims
16 of 38
Aetiological crisis?
Young. Increase in crime since 1950's in w/c crime. Critical criminology & labelling theory deny increase is real. Argue result of increase in reporting or labelling poor. Left argue more people reporting as more people committing. Use victim surveys
17 of 38
3 causes of crime?
1.Relative deprivation 2.Subculture 3.Marginalisation
18 of 38
Relative deprivation?
Lea & Young. Lead to crime as people have more so resort to crime to obtain. Though people are better off, now more aware of relative deprivation from media = raises expectations. Cant obtain = crime
19 of 38
Relative deprivation & individualism?
Young- Deprivation doesnt necessarily lead to crime. Combination of the 2. Causes crime by encouraging pursuit of self interest at expense of others. Causes disintegration of families, weakening informal controls etc
20 of 38
Subculture?
Different groups find different subcultural solutions to blocked opportunities. Some cause crime, others use religion for comfort/explanation. Criminal subcultures still follow mainstream values EG materialism but opportunities blocked=street crime
21 of 38
Marginalisation?
Lack goals/organisations to represent interests. Workers=clear goals/organisations so dont need to resort to violence. Unemployed youth marginalised as have neither, just resentment/frustration. Cant use political means to improve so riot
22 of 38
Late modernity, exclusion & crime?
Young-Later modern society=instability, insecurity & exclusion make crime worse. Deindustrialisation/loss of unskilled jobs increase unemployment/poverty for young & ethnic minority. Increased divorce rates. Led to marginalisation/exclusion at bottom
23 of 38
Young on cultural inclusion & economic exclusion as source of relative deprivation?
1.Media saturated late modern society promotes cultural inclusion-even poor access media 2.Greater emphasis on leisure, stresses personal consumption/immediate gratification=higher expectations
24 of 38
Another point Young makes on cultural inclusion & economic exclusion as source of relative deprivation?
Poor systematically excluded from opportunities to gain glittering prizes of wealthy society despite meritocracy
25 of 38
Young & Merton link?
Young's contrast between cultural inclusion & economic exclusion similar to Merton's notion of anomie-society creates crime by setting cultural goals (material wealth) while denying opportunity by legit means
26 of 38
Types & trend of crimes now?
More widespread not just bottom of social structure. Increase in hate crimes from relative deprivation EG Racist attacks. Society becomes divers so less public consensus, boundaries blurred. Informal controls less effective as families disintegrate.
27 of 38
2 ways in which left realists tackle crime?
1.Policing & control 2.Tackling structural causes
28 of 38
Policing & control?
Kinsey, Lea & Young. Police clear up rates too low to act as deterrent to crime/too little time investigating. Public should be more involved. Police losing public support in inner cities/ethnic minorities.
29 of 38
Consequences of policing & control?
Flow of info dries up = military policing occurs like swamping = alienates communities = no trust = no info
30 of 38
Solution to policing & control issue?
Policing must be made accountable to local communities. Routine beat patrols ineffective, stop & search cause conflict. Need improved relationship with local communities by spending more time investigating. Not left to police alone-multi agent needed
31 of 38
Tackling structural causes?
Causes of crime lie in unequal structure of society & structural changes needed. Young-Deal with inequality of opportunity/unfairness of rewards, tackle discrimination & provide good jobs for all. Become more tolerant of diversity/avoid stereotyping
32 of 38
Left realism & government policy?
Influence New Labour governments stance 'tough on crime, tough on causes of crime'. Firmer approach to policing of hate crimes, sex assaults/violence. Deal for unemployed youth.
33 of 38
Young on left realism & government policy?
Many policies nostalgic/doomed. Labour only addressed symptoms like anti social behaviour. Tougher on crime than on its causes such as insecurity, inequality etc
34 of 38
Marxists criticisms of left realism?
Henry & Milovanovic- It accepts authorities' definition of crime as being street crime by poor, rather than defining problem as one of how powerful harm poor. Argue fails to explain corporate crime
35 of 38
Interactionists criticisms of left realism?
Because they rely on quantitative data from victim surveys, they cant explain motives. Need qualitative data to reveal meanings
36 of 38
3 other criticisms of left realism?
1.Use of subcultural theory means left realists assume value consensus exists & crime only occurs when it breaks down 2.Relative deprivation cant fully explain crime as not all who experience commit 3.Focus on high crime inner city=unrepresentative
37 of 38
Comparing right & left realism?
Both=crime real problem/fear of crime as rational. Right=Neo Conservative Left=Reformist socialists Right=Blame no individual self control Left=Blame structural inequalities/relative deprivation Right=Prioritise social order Left=Prioritise justice
38 of 38

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Regard them as too sympathetic to criminals. Are solutions not sources

Back

Right realism on labelling theory and critical criminology?

Card 3

Front

Reject marxists idea of economic factors. Crime is product of 3 factor: Biological differences, inadequate socialisation & the underclass, & rational choice to offend

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Wilson & Hernstein. Biological differences between individuals make some more strongly predisposed to commit = personality traits like aggressiveness, risk taking etc put some at greater risk of offending. Main cause is low intelligence=biological

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Effective socialisation decreases risk of crime as it involves learning self control & morals. Nuclear family is best agency of socialistation

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »