Sociology End of Year Exam revision cards

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  • Created by: sophsta
  • Created on: 24-05-14 17:10
What is crime?
Crime is an illegal act that is punishable by law. If a person commits a crime and it is detected, they could be arrested, charged and prosecuted. If found guilty, they will receive a sentence such as a community order, fine or imprisonment.
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What is deviance?
Deviance refers to behaviour that does not conform to a society's norms or social rules. If a person behaves in a way that is seen as deviant and this is discovered, it could lead to negative sanctions such as being told off, ignored or ridiculed.
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What is formal social control?
Formal social control is based on formal written rules that are set out in laws or in codes of conduct such as school rules.
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What is informal social control?
Informal social control is based on unwritten or 'taken-for-granted' rules and is enforced through social pressure from groups such as families, friends or peers.
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Why might some sociologists believe that inadequate socialisation within families is the cause of crime?
It highlights the negative influence of the home environment and the failure of some parents to socialise their children.
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What is the New Right approach to inadequate socialisation?
New Right approaches, for example, argue that children whose parents fail to take responsibility for socialising them correctly are more prone to crime.
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Why might some sociologists believe that sub-cultural theories are the cause of crime?
These theories explain crime and deviance in terms of the values of a particular sub-culture and the influence of a peer group. Young males in particular learn deviant behaviour by joining a peer group or gang which follow certain behaviour.
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What did Albert Cohen say about working-class boys and sub-cultures?
Cohen argued that working-class boys joined delinquent subcultures to gain status within their peer group.
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Why might some sociologists argue that relative deprivation is the cause of crime?
People feel deprived when they see themselves as badly off in comparison to a particular group. Experiencing feelings of relative deprivation may motivate criminal behaviour.
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What are the marxist explanations for crime?
This approach links crime to the social inequalities that are built into capitalism. In a capitalist society, not everyone can access wealth and status so some people commit crime to acquire the goods that others have and that the media promote.
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What is the cause of crime from the Marxist approach?
The legal system operates in favour of the rich. For example, rich people who commit expense account fraud or tax evasion are less likely to be convicted than working-class people who commit benefit fraud.
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Why might some sociologists believe that the labelling theory is a major cause of crime?
The labelling theory explores how and why some people (e.g working-class boys) become labelled as deviant or criminal. Being labelled a deviant or criminal may result from the reaction of other people and is not due to an individual's behaviour.
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What might labelling do to someone?
Labelling someone as deviant may help to create a self-fulfilling prophecy by pushing someone further towards deviance.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is deviance?

Back

Deviance refers to behaviour that does not conform to a society's norms or social rules. If a person behaves in a way that is seen as deviant and this is discovered, it could lead to negative sanctions such as being told off, ignored or ridiculed.

Card 3

Front

What is formal social control?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is informal social control?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why might some sociologists believe that inadequate socialisation within families is the cause of crime?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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