Sociology - Education Theorists

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  • Created by: Edvickers
  • Created on: 20-05-15 21:51
Basil Bernstein (1975)
Distinguishes between elaborated and restricted speech codes
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Herbert Hyman
The working class place a lower value on education (and believe they will not benefit from it)
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Bary Sugarman
Argued that the difference in outlook and attitude towards education between classes was down to the nature of manual and non-manual labour occupation
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J.W.B. Douglas
Argues that working class parents show less interest in their children's education and give them less support, for example they are less likely than middle class parents to attend parents evening
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Bourdieu 1984 (MARXIST)
Argues that middle class pupils are more successful than working class pupils because their parents possess more capital or assets. CULTURAL CAPITAL.
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Becker (1961)
Argues that teachers label middle class students as 'ideal pupils' and prefer to teach them rather than working class children
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Lacey (1970)
Describes streaming as differentiation. This then leads often to self fulfilling prophecy
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Douglas
Found that IQ of pupils labelled as less able and placed in lower streams actually decreased over time, whereas that of pupils in the top streams increased.
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Lacey
Argues that lower stream students form or join anti-school subcultures because school deprives them of status by labelling them 'failures'. Therefore the students then create there own status hierarchy from their peers by rejecting sch. values/rules
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David Hargreaves
Found that as a result of labelling and streaming in secondary modern's, those placed in lower streams were triple failures: They had failed the 11+, been placed in a low stream, and been labelled as "worthless louts".
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Stephen Ball
Found that in abolishing streaming, the basis for students to polarise into subcultures was largely removed, and the influence of anti-school subcultures declined
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Mary Fuller
Argues that students who are labelled do not necessarily have to fulfil their prophecy.
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Miriam David
'Parentocracy' - power shifts away from school and towards parents. As a result schools are said to raise standards, meet the needs of different pupils, promote diversity and give parents more choice.
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Stephen Ball + Geoff Whitty
Marketisation reproduces and justifies inequality through the "funding formula" and "Exam league tables"
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Stephen Ball
"myth of parentocracy" - In reality parents do not have free choice of school, instead it is more based on class
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Gerwitz
"Myth of parentocracy" - Middle class parents have more cultural and economic capital and so are better able to take advantage of the marketisation of education
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Leech and Campos
Middle class parents can afford to move into the catchment areas of more desirable schools unlike the working class
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Whitty
Argues that labours "anti-inequality" policies are merely cosmetic. For example EMA's may encourage working class students to stay on until 18, however high tuition fees may discourage them from going to University.
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Bereiter and Engelmann
Says that the language of poor American black families is disjointed and ungrammatical. As a result children are unable to abstract abstract ideas - a major barrier to educational development.
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Murray (NEW RIGHT)
Argues that high rate of lone parenthood in African-American households leads to under achievement in education
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Moynihan
Argues that the absence of a black male role model produces inadequately socialised children who fail at school. This then creates a cycle of poverty
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Pryce
Black Caribbean culture is more susceptible to racism due to the experience of slavery. As a result many black pupils have low self esteem and under achieve
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Khan
Asian families are controlling over girls, meaning they don't do as well at school
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Lupton (2004)
Studied working class schools. teachers reported poorer levels of behaviour in white working class schools. They linked this to lower levels of parental support and a negative view on education from parents.
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Evans (2006)
Argues that street culture in white working class areas is brutal and can be brought into school. The result is a strong pressure to reject education.
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Keddie
Ethnic minority children are culturally different, not deprived.
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Ball
Argues that ethnic minority's are at a disadvantage because they are less aware of to negotiate the British Education System. This is "cultural Exclusion", rather than "Cultural Deprivation".
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Gerwitz
Says complex school application forms are an example of Cultural Exclusion
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Gillborn and Youdell
Teachers labelled black students and expected more discipline problems from them. As a result they were more likely to receive punishment. These racial stereotypes led to more black pupils being excluded, and more likely to be put in low streams.
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Wright
Asian primary school students were stereotyped by their teachers, and assumed they would have a poor grasp of english and so spoke to them using simplistic language.
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Connolly
Saw that primary school teachers saw Asian students as passive. Asian boys were seen by teachers and pupils as 'feminine' and vulnerable.
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Sewell
Studied black pupils response to subcultures
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Fuller
Noted that Black girls rejected negative labels and recognised the value of education.
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Mizra
Although Black girls rejected negative labels, they were still disadvantaged from them; e.g. not asking certain staff to help
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Tryona and Williams
British Education system is ethnocentric towards white culture and english language.
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Ball
Argues that the History curriculum in British schools glorifies British history, and disregards the history of black or asian people.
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Hatcher
Found that schools governing bodies gave a low priority to race issues
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Ranson
Found that governing bodies are mainly made up of white people
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Sharpe
Found that Girls in the 1970's were focused on marriage + husbands, whereas in the 1990's this switched to careers + independence
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Francis
Found that girls now had higher career aspirations, and so needed educational qualifications
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Mitsos and Browne
Girls do better than boys in coursework because they are more conscientious and are better organised.
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Gorard
The introduction of GCSE's in 1988 saw a sharp increase in girls achievement (due to heavy coursework)
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Francis
Found although boys received the most attention, they were disciplined more harshly and felt teachers picked on them and had lower expectations of them.
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Epstein
Found that pro-school working class boys were more likely to be harassed and labeled as 'gay' and subjected to verbal abuse.
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Byrne
Found that teachers encourage boys to be tough and show initiative, and girls to be quite, helpful, clean and tidy.
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DURKHEIM (FUNCTIONALIST)
Education performs two functions: Promotes social solidarity (teaches a common history and shared rituals) and prepares young people for work.
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PARSONS (FUNCTIONALIST)
School is the focal socialising agency of modern society. Education teaches universalistic standards and acts as a bridge between family and society. It also teaches meritocracy and equal opportunity. School is a miniature society.
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DAVIS AND MOORE (FUNCTIONALIST)
Main function of education is role allocation. For society to function efficiently, the most talented individuals need to be allocated the most important jobs. The meritocratic education system 'sifts' and 'sorts' these individuals.
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Hargreaves
Schools place more value on competition and developing individuals, rather than social solidarity like Durkheim claims.
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CHUBB AND MOE (NEW RIGHT)
Argue that state education is not meritocratic because it doesn't respond to pupils needs. The solution is marketisation.
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Gerwitz
Argues that competition between schools in an education market benefits the middle/ruling classes.
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Althusser
Education performs two functions as an Ideological State Apparatus: Reproduces class inequality through failing each class of working class pupils. It also justifies class inequality by producing ideologies that disguise its true cause.
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Bowles and Gintis
Education reproduces and obedient, exploitable workforce for capitalism. Correspondence principle (school mirrors work) - through the hidden curriculum. And Myth of Meritocracy.
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WILLIS (MARXIST)
Learning to Labour - "Lads" form a counter school culture and flout its rules. They see through the meritocratic ideology, however through resting it they are in fact ensuring they end up in manual work and serve capitalism.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The working class place a lower value on education (and believe they will not benefit from it)

Back

Herbert Hyman

Card 3

Front

Argued that the difference in outlook and attitude towards education between classes was down to the nature of manual and non-manual labour occupation

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Argues that working class parents show less interest in their children's education and give them less support, for example they are less likely than middle class parents to attend parents evening

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Argues that middle class pupils are more successful than working class pupils because their parents possess more capital or assets. CULTURAL CAPITAL.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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