Sociology - Deviance

Terms and theories

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deviance
the recognized violation of cultural norms
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FUNCTIONS OF DEVIANCE (DURKHEIM)
1. It affirms cultural values and norms 2. Clarifies moral boundaries 3. Promotes social unity 4. Deviance as Safety Valve 5. Encourages social change
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External Social Controls
societal mechanisms that monitor our behavior: they reward conformity and punish non-conformity
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Hirschi’s social bond theory (SI)
• Social control depends on people anticipating the consequences of their behavior • Conformity is linked to four different types of social control: 1. Attachment: Strong social attachments encourage conformity 2. Opportunity: The greater the acc
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Internal Social Controls
Seated within the individual and are learned through socialization
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Merton's Strain Theory (Functionalism)
Society establishes goals for all to seek and dictates which means are legitimate to use in this effort
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Prescriptive Norms
Dictate what is expected
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Proscriptive Norms
Govern forbidden conduct
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Primary Deviance
Norm violations that provoke slight reaction from others and have little effect on a person’s self-concept
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Secondary Deviance
Response to primary deviance by which a person begins to take on a deviant identity and repeatedly breaks the rules
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Stigma
a powerfully negative social label that radically changes a person's self concept and social identity
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Retrospective labeling
the interpretation of someone's past consistent with present deviance
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Projective Labeling
Using a deviant identity to predict future actions
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Sutherland's Differential Association Theory (SI)
Deviance is learned through the same processes as conformity – socialization. • Deviance is learned through association with others -- especially in primary groups
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Labeling Theory (SI)
Deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do, but from how others respond
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Socialization into deviant behavior
1. Deviant behavior is learned through interaction with others 2. Learning behavior comes from acquiring techniques, motives, drives, and attitudes for such behavior 3. People learn definitions favorable to the norms in question 4. Frequency, length
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Card 2

Front

1. It affirms cultural values and norms 2. Clarifies moral boundaries 3. Promotes social unity 4. Deviance as Safety Valve 5. Encourages social change

Back

FUNCTIONS OF DEVIANCE (DURKHEIM)

Card 3

Front

societal mechanisms that monitor our behavior: they reward conformity and punish non-conformity

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

• Social control depends on people anticipating the consequences of their behavior • Conformity is linked to four different types of social control: 1. Attachment: Strong social attachments encourage conformity 2. Opportunity: The greater the acc

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Seated within the individual and are learned through socialization

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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