Sociology

What is a reconstituted family?
A family that consists of a mother and her children from 1 family and a father and his children from another family joining together through marriage
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What is industrialisation?
When the industry changed from being one of agriculture to one where factories, shops, markets and healthcare were provided.
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What does cohabitation mean?
This is where people live together without being married.
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What is primary socialisation?
This is where people live together without being married.
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What is primary socialisation?
This is where the family teaches children the norms and values of society and the behaviour that is acceptable/unacceptable.
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What is secondary socialisation?
Where norms and values are reinforced outside of the home. For example: education (teachers) + media.
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What is formal social control?
Things that are put in place to control our behaviour (institutions, criminal justice system, education system)
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What are conjugal roles?
The roles played by a male and female partner in marriage or in cohabitation.
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What is the instrumental role?
The person who goes out to get the money and provide for the family (usually the male)
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What is the expressive role?
This is the more nurturing role, the person who looks after the house and children, offering support and guidance (usually the female)
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Who identified the instrumental and expressive roles?
Parsons.
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What are the 4 main functions of the family according to Murdock?
Reproduction, sexual, educational and economic.
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What do Marxists think of society?
That we have a 2 class society - consists of the: Bourgeoisie = ruling class + Proletariat = working class. We live in a capitalist society that is all about money and profit.
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What are the 3 functions that Marxists believe the nuclear family performs?
Ideological functions, Inheritance of property and Unit of consumption.
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What are ideological functions?
A set of beliefs. Marxists believe that the family shares a set of beliefs to children that they should always listen to people higher than them in society.
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What is inheritance of property?
The money and property from the ruling class is kept within the family instead of being given back to society.
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What is unit of consumption?
The family is a unit of consumption - When the working class buy into the bourgeoisie's products - usually a result of pester power from children. This makes the bourgeoisie richer and the working class poorer.
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What are segregated conjugal roles?
Where a couple have separate roles: a male breadwinner + a female homemaker. (Leisure activities also tend to be separate)
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What are joint conjugal roles?
Where the couple share tasks such as housework + childcare + spend their leisure time together.
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What is the commercialisation of housework?
Goods + services that housewives previously had to produce themselves are now mass produced and supplied by supermarkets etc to make housework quicker and easier. E.g. diswashers + microwaves.
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What is a dual burden?
When a person (typically the woman) is responsible for 2 jobs. They are responsible for domestic labour (such as cleaning/childcare) aswell as paid work
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What is pooling?
This is where both partners have access to income and joint responsibility for expenditure; for example, a joint bank account.
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What is an allowance system?
This is where men give their wives an allowance out of which they have to budget to meet the families needs, with the man retaining any surplus income for himself.
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What do Young and Willmott (1973) think of the family?
They take a 'march of progress' view of the history of the family. They see family life as gradually improving for all its members, becoming more equal and democratic.
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What do feminists think of the family?
They reject this 'march of progress' view. Little has changed; men and women remain unequal + women still do most of the housework.
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How can you critique Oakley's research?
Her research was conducted on middle class housewives so it would have been biased. Young and Willmott said that men doing 1 household chore per week was a symmetrical family. Oakley believed that this was hardly convincing evidence of symmetry.
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What did Gershuny find?
He found that wives who worked full-time did less domestic work: Wives who did not go to work did 83% of the housework + even wives who worked part-time still did 82%. Wives who worked full time did 73% of the housework.
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What are gender scripts?
Gillian Dunne (1999) Expectations or norms that set out the different gender roles men and women in heterosexual couples are expected to play.
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How can you contradict this view?
In lesbian couples, gender scripts do not operate to the same extent. In her study of 37 cohabiting lesbian couples with dependent children, Dunne found evidence of symmetry in their relationships.
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What is domestic violence?
Physical, psychological, sexual or financial violence that takes place within an intimate or family-type relationship and forms a pattern of coercive and controlling behaviour. It may involve partners, ex-partners, household members or other relativ
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What did Mirrlees-Black find?
She conducted a survey of 16,000 people, and this estimates that there are 6.6 million domestic assaults a year, about half involving physical injury.
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She also found that:
- Most victims are women - 99% of all incidents against women are committed by men. - Nearly one in four women has been assaulted by a partner at some time in her life, and one in eight repeatedly so.
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What are the groups at risk of domestic violence?
-Children and young people - Those in the lowest social classes - Those who live in rented accomodation - Those on low incomes or in financial difficulties - Those with high levels of alcohol consumption + users of illegal drugs.
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Feminists on family diversity
Feminists - Dislike the nuclear family, like family diversity as it gives them freedom, and they believe that serial monogamy is good
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Functionalists on family diversity
Functionalists - Nuclear family is the best as it meets the needs of society. Against family diversity - both man and woman are needed to provide adequate socialisation.
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Postmodernists on family diversity
Postmodernists - Divorce is good, it supports family diversity. They recognise that all families are different.
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New Right on family diversity
New Right - Family diversity is the best. They are anti-feminist. They are opposed to family diversity, as they believe that all children should have married parents; lone parents are harmful.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is industrialisation?

Back

When the industry changed from being one of agriculture to one where factories, shops, markets and healthcare were provided.

Card 3

Front

What does cohabitation mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is primary socialisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is primary socialisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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