Sociology - WHY YOUTHS PARTICIPATE IN DEVIANT SUBCULTURES

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Functionalist views - 1/4
merton - strains between the goals of society and what youths can actually achieve; this can create deviant responses
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Functionalist views - 2/4
Cohen - status fustration - WC youths aware of the mainstream values but know they are inferior; join subcultures to deal with fustration, can gain status through peers
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Functionalist views - 3/4
miller - WC youths have different values; focal concerns of being macho/streetwise
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Functionalist views - 4/4
cloward and ohlin - unable to achieve through mainstream ways, so have to use illegitimate ways; different pathways for this creates different subcultures - criminal, conflict, retreatist
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new right views
WC youths haven't been correctly socialised in value consensus; lack of father can be damaging; welfare dependancy is seen as a positive lifestyle; norms of laziness/criminality
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marxist views - 2 concepts and 1 key study
resistance control, e.g skinheads exaggerated WC values; reaction to identity being threatened by incorporation (hebdige); Lea + young - relative deprivation from media and deprivation compared to adults; marginalisation; subcultures help cope
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interactionist views - the main cause + 1 key study
deviancy is a social construct. labelling and SFP creates master status that leads to deivancy. BECKER - labels relate to power, not everyone can make label stick, e.g. police labelling youths as deviant
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CLASS and deviant subcultures - 1/3 studies
jock young - vindictiveness; worship money and materials but don't have the means to achieve them
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CLASS and deviant subcultures - 2/3
white - subcultures provide social inclusion and way to cope with marginalisation
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CLASS and deviant subcultures - 3/3
decker and vanwinkle - subcultures have both push and pull factors
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ETHNICITY and deviant subcultures - what are they a response to?
response to racism in schools (ethnocentric) creates anti school subcultures
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ETHNICITY and deviant subcultures - 1/3
SEWELL - doing well is seen as feminine and black youths don't want this
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ETHNICITY and deviant subcultures - 2/3
NIGHTINGALE - paradox of inclusion - black youths grow up with consumerism of US culture; excluded racially/economically so have to use illegitimate ways to achieve things
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ETHNICITY and deviant subcultures - 3/3
BOURGOIS - anguish of growing up poor - latinos in el barrio felt deprived growing up near rich NY city; deviance becomes norm to survive and achieve respect
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GENDER and deviant subcultures - BOYS
faludi - being deivant isn't seen as bad; they're simply expressing the masculine values that society admires; connell - should ignore biological explanations; relentless portrayal of violence in media
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GENDER and deviant subcultures - GIRLS
Heidenson - girls less deviant due to social control of reputations, confined to house more, scared of going against feminine norms; self reports show that female deviance peaks earlier but also declines earlier
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GENDER and deviant subcultures - both genders in anti school
Mac an ghaill - macho lads show extreme hegemonic masculinity (3F's) as a result of masculinity being threatened; Jackson - laddishness present in both boys and girls; cool to be clever, but not to work
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Functionalist views - 2/4

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Cohen - status fustration - WC youths aware of the mainstream values but know they are inferior; join subcultures to deal with fustration, can gain status through peers

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Functionalist views - 3/4

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Card 4

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Functionalist views - 4/4

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Card 5

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new right views

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