Sociology - THEORIES

functionalism - what type of theory?
structural theory - society is an interdependent structure
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functionalism - describes society as a
human body - each part works effectively together - organic analogy
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functionalism - what do we need to be socialised into
value consensus
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functionalism - what does education teach
social solidarity - all belong to a shared identity
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functionalism - key idea
meritocracy - society is fair and based on achievement, durkheim - inequalities inevitable as some people work harder and need rewarding; all jobs are needed
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functionalism - best family type + 2 theories
nuclear - roles biologically suited, warm bath theory provides comfort/support for everyone; sex role theory learn norms of gender by imitating parents
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marxism - what type of theory
conflict theory - sees society as being based on inequality
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marxism - class divisions mean
some people benefit economically and others don't
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marxism - capitalism
bourgeoisie control wealth, proletariat are exploited and work, someday they'll realise this and rebel to make a communist society
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marxism - key idea
ideological state apparatus - agencies transmit ideology of bourgeoisie and justify inequalities; create FALSE CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS where proletariat adopt values of bourgeoisie and don't see an alternative
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marxism - key work idea
reserve army of labour - unemployed wait for work, constricted due to hierarchy, traditionally women and elderly
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postmodernism - what has ended
modernity (industrialisation), and we're now in a time of postmodernity
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postmodernism - views on identity
fluid, defined by personal choice rather than factors like gender or class
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postmodernism - whats breaking and why
traditional family structures and gender/class roles due to globalisation and media
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feminism - 4 waves
1st = 1800s, suffragettes right to education/vote; 2nd = 60s, equal pay, awareness, abuse illegal; 3rd = 90s, challenge gender and sexuality stereotypes; 4th = 2010..., online support networks + give women voices
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feminism - liberal + key study
men and women equal; happens through changes in law and attitudes; biological differences don't affect; Oakley - we're born with sex and gender is socially constructed; need more male role models in home labour/school
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feminism - radical + key studies
firestone - patriarchy created by disadvantage and dependancy of pregnancy; brownmiller - fear of **** controls women; separatism and lesbianism recommended
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feminism - black + example
suffer invisibility e.g. mary seacole
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feminism - marxist + key study
inequality caused by capitalism - women reserve army of labour; have to reproduce labour force; Ansley - 'takers of ****' so husbands don't threaten system; dually oppressed - by men and capitalism
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feminism - difference
say other theories focus on western women; women in developing countries have bigger concerns
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feminism - key inequality idea
glass ceiling - invisible but real barrier preventing women reaching next level; men get more pay and top jobs
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functionalism - describes society as a


human body - each part works effectively together - organic analogy

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functionalism - what do we need to be socialised into


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functionalism - what does education teach


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functionalism - key idea


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