Sociology studies G672 & G673

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Functionalist definition
Crime is neccessary to reinforce the value consensous
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Functionalist - Parsons (G672)
transitional phase
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Functionalist - Cohen (Age, gender, class, ethnicity) **
Status frustrataion
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Functionalist - Merton (class, gender, age, ethnicity) **
strain theory
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Functionalist - Durkheim (class, age, ethnicity) **
Anomie
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Functionalist sub. - Miller (class, age) **
Focal concerns - toughness, smartness, excitment experienced by the lower class not the upper.
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Functionalist sub. - Cloward &Ohlin (age, gender, class, ethnicity) **
illigitamate opportunity structure
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Functionalist sub. - Bourgeois (class, ethnicity) **
American dream - people drug deal to get money to live the US lifestyle
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Functionalist - Waters (G672)
Conspicuous consumption
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Functionalist sub. - Nightingale (ethnicity, class) **
Black people conspicuosuly consume to look better
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Marxist Definition
Crime is a response to the oppression experienced by the working class.
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Marxist - Chambliss
Crimes reflect the ruling class. Crimes are only seen as deviant when the ruling class label them as such
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Marxist - Althusser (class)
Laws are an ideological state apparatus
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Marxist - Box (class)
Laws benefit the ruling class
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Marxist - Gordon (class)
Crime is a rational response to capitalism
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Marxist - Reiman (class)
Crimes of the powerful less likely to be treated as an offence
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Marxist - Snider (Class)
Laws are reluctant to pass which may limit the proffitability
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Marxist Occupational crime - Sutherland (Class)
White - collar crime
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Marxist occupational crime - Ditton & Mars (class)
Employees found that stealing from the workplace was a 'perk'
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Marxist occupational crime - Clarke (Class)
Management turn a blind eye to fiddles
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Marxist occupational crime - Levi (Class)
75% of fraud cases were conducted by employees, but refuse to prosecute as they may attract bad publicity
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Marxist Occupational crime - barclay & tavares (class)
Losses per year from theft is £330 million (25% of all retail losses)
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Marxist corporate crime - Tombs & Whyte
Laws that are enforced are a reflection of the economic influences of large corporations
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Marxist corporate crime - Braithwaite
Businesses controlled through regulation rather than policing
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Marxist corporate crime - Kramer
shuttle explosion - due to a budget could have been prevented, still treated as an accident
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Marxist Globalisation - Taylor
the globalisation of business provides fertile soil for the expansion of transactional crimes
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Marxist globalisation - Ruggiero
Decline in employment encourages growth of small firms in west europe, they avoid labour laws and operate outside the formal economy
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Marxist globalisation - Box
illegal companies dumped into underdeveloped countries which can not say no
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Marxist globalisation - Raymond
Human trafficing was worth 5-7 million
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Marxist sub. - Cohen (Age, gender, class, subcultures ) **
skinheads
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Marxist sub. - Hebdige (Age, gender, class, subcultures) **
MODs reaction against the bordeom of work
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Marxist sub. - Brake (age, class) **
magical resistance
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Marxist sub. - CCCS (class) **
class shows the direction of subcultures
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Marxist sub. - Mac An Ghail (age, gender, class) **
crisis in masculinity
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Marxist sub. - Willis (age, gender, class, ethnictiy) **
12 lads, racist attitudes
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Neo Marxist definition
Neo Marxist theory suggests that working class criminals are politically motivated by their negative experience of capitalism.
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Neo Marxist (new criminology) - Taylor, Walton & Young
Agree with marxism on - economy is the most important part of society, capitalism is to blame, to overcome we must see a transformation in capitalism
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Neo marxism (new criminology) - Hall (gender, age, class, ethnicity) **
Muggin's - policing the crisis - diverted the attention away from the mismanagemnt of the capitalist society
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Neo marxism (new criminology) - Gilroy (ethnicity, class) **
Rejected the view that blacks resorted to crime due to poor socialisation but rather defending themselves from ethnic inequalities
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Interactionalist Definition
Social construction of crime through labelling
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Interactionalist - Becker (age, gender, class, ethnicity, construction) **
labelling theory
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Interactionalist - Lemert (class, gender, age, ethnicity) **
primary & secondary deviance, master status - self fufilling prophecy
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Interactionalist - Hall (class, age, gender, ethnicity) **
Muggin's moral panic folk devils (stephen lawrence - macpherson report)
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Interactionalist - Young (age, gender, class, ethnicity) **
by being labelled as deviant creates a self-fufilling prophecy
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Interactionalist sub. - Cohen (age, gender, class) **
exaggeration of media amplified the deviance enforce by the subculture
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Interactionalist - Malinowski
Incest on an island caused someone to kill themself even though it was widespread. Not the act that is labelled deviantly but the social reaction
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Interactionalist - Wilkins (age, gender, class, ethnicity) **
deviancy amplification - role of the mass media & the social construction
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RIght Realist Definition
Rise in the underclass means that more poeple are commiting crimes
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Right realist - Murray (age, class) **
the rise in the underclass created the issues not mainstream, points to single parents
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Right realist - Marsland (age, class) **
Welfare dependancy is responsible for the rise in the underclass and therefore rise in crime
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Right realist - Clarke (age, gender, class, ethnicity, solutions) **
Crime is based of rational choice and criminal weigh up the strengths and the weaknesses
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Right realist - Hirschi (age, gender, class, ethnicity) **
people lack the 4 controls leading to crime - attachment, involvment, commitment and belief
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Right realist - Wilson (age, gender, crime, ethnicity, solutions) **
Broken windows
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Left realism Definition
Placed blame on the police and policy makers to reduce the impact of crime on poorer people
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Left realist - Lea & Young
3 elements to crime - relative deprivation, marginalisation & subculture
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Left Realist - Runciman
Relative deprivation - political revolutions were only apparent when the poor became aware of their positions
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Left realist - Young Marginalisation
refers to the situation where certain groups in the population are more likely than others to suffer economic, social and political deprivation, those in inner city areas are likely to suffer more
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Islington & Merseyside victim survey
Unstructured interviews - victims opinion, valid, qualitative data, unrepeatable, time, expensive
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Feminist definition
women commit different types of crime and only due to less social control
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Feminist - Corall (gender, age) **
teens excitement
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Feminist - Leonard (gender, class) **
Women commit less crime due to social control and expectations from society
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Feminist - Smart & Okley (gender, Class, age) **
men and womens socialisations vary and thats why they commit different crimes
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Feminist - Pollak (gender, social construction - police/ courts) **
chivalry thesis
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Feminist - Lees (Gender) **
women fear a bad reputation
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Feminist - Walklate (gender, class, age) **
Women commit crimes such as stealing & prostitution (no victim)
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Feminist - Heidensohn (gender, class, age - males) **
hegemonic masculinity, working class underachievement forms anti school subcultures
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Postmodern feminist - Katz/ Lyng (age, gender, class)**
Crime is for the thrill/ edgework
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Feminist - Kelly (G672)
subject choices
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Feminist - Smart/ Mcrobbie (G672)
boys have more freedom / bedroom culture
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Feminist - Jackson (G672)
ladettes
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Ethnicity - Holdaway (Social construction - police)
canteen culture
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Ethnicity - Philips & Bowling (social construction - police)**
military style policing for e/m, + 7x stop & search
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Ethnicity - Waddington ** (Location, social construction - Police)
CCTV footage shows that it is location not racism, more em live in urban areas where more crime occurs
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Ethnicity - Cashmoore **
blocked opportunities
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Location - Shaw & Mckay
zones of transitions
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Location - Shaw & Mckay
social disorganisation
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Location - Shaw & Mckay
cultural transmittion (inheritance)
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Location - Sutherland
differential association
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Location - Marshall
By zoning people creates a SFP and therefore people experience anomie
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Location - Baldwin & Bottoms
tipping
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Location - Hobbs
night-time economy
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Construction - Police - Macpherson report (age, gender, class, ethnicity) **
Stephen lawrence
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Construction - Police - Smith (ethnicity)
stereotypical assumptions
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Construction - police - Scratton (ethnicity)
Coughing is when police get offenders to own up to crimes that they may not have committed, in exchange for a more lenient sentence.
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Construction - Police - Interpretivists (disagree)
argues that the OCS tells us more about the nature of the police rather than the crime itself
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Construction - Courts - Hood
Black & white who commits the same crime, black 17% more likely to be sentenced
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Construction - Courts - Farrington & morris
though men do receive harsher sentences than women, this distinction shrinks in relation to the severity of the offence committed
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Construction - Courts - Heidensohn
sees women as doubly deviant and therefore gives harsher sentences as they are going against the norm
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Construction - media
all of interactionalism, links to class, etnnicity, gender, location & age
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OCS
analysis of secondary data collected by the government, includes crimes reported by police and victimiisation survey (BCS)
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OCS strengths
easy, cheap, contempory, trends, comparisons, no ethics
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OCS weaknesses
not representative, political abuse, social construction, truth?
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Victimisation - BCS
face-to-face structured interviews 8000-11000, 16+ years, private responses, 2007 76% response rate
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Victimisation - BCS strengths
reliable, unaffected by the police
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Victimisation - BCS Weaknesses
Marxism - doesnt consider crimes without a victim, corporate not cosidred,Ellington - not representative, L & R realist - doesnt consider the location of crimes
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Victimisation - Islington (left realist) - Self report
primary data, victim surveys (self-report)
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Victimisation - Islington - Lea & Young
25% of people wont go out after dark, 28% feel unsafe at home
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victimisation - Feminist victim surveys
qualitative structured interviews, female victim, mostly domestic violence & sexual attacks
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Victimisation - Feminist victim survey - Graham
questionnaires & structured interviews give a distorted image of women being victims, puts everyone into same category.
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Victimisation - Feminist victim survey - Dobash & Dobash (self-report studies)
23% experienced violence before marriage but thought that it would not progress after marriage
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Victimisation - Feminist victim surveys - Walklate (self-report studies)
Women are unable to leave due to power relations with males
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Victimisation - Feminist & Islington weaknesses
cant be repeated, cant be categorised, time consuming, expensive
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Self - report studies
survey that attempts to uncover all crime in society by asking both crimes committed and victims through a questionnaire, asks victims to tick crimes successfully committed
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Self - report strengths
valid, confidential, anonymous, Box - found findings to be the same as the OCS
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Self - report weaknesses
Marsh - validity undermined due to over & under reporting, impossible to record all crimes, mainly younger people, doesnt consider white or corporate crimes Jongertas - response rates lower from people with a criminal record
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Self-report studies - campbell
The rate of male to female juvenile offending was higher (girls committed more offences) than official figures indicated
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Right realist solutions to crime
individual benefits vs choice, if benefit is greater crime is committed
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Right realist solutions- Situational crime prevention
reduces opportunity of crime by increasing security ie. car trackers
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Right realist solutions - Situational crime prevention weaknesses
Felson & clarke - displaces rather than stops, Marxist - creates a new social inequality
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Right realist solutions - Environmental crime prevention
zero tolerance policy, lack of community, sort vandalism faster, lower public housing
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Right realist solutions - retributive
punishment, exclusion
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right realist solutions - retributive weaknesses
garland - 60% reoffend, doesnt consider poverty, badge of honour
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Left realist solutions to crime
blame crime on society - poverty and disadvantage
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Left realist solutions - social & community
politicians need to address social and economic conditions, urban crime is a rational response to illigitamate opportunity, reform programmes needed.
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Left realist solutions - restorative (victimisation)
take responsibility for crime, apologising,
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Left realist solutions - Resorative weaknesses
Sherman & shrang - weak as it favours the offender, Braithwaite - shames act and not person
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Left realist solutions - Culture of control
garland- identifies potential criminal groups early and acts upon them, feely & Simon - acturialism (manage groups not individual)
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Construction (G672)
demographic trends, school, media, globalisation, style
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Postmodernist views (G672)
fluid changeable club culture experienced by everyone
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Postmodernist - polemus
Supermarket of style
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Postmodernist - pakolski & waters
class is dead
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Postmodernist - clarke and saunders
lifestyle choices
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Other - Johall & Bains
Code - switching
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Card 2

Front

transitional phase

Back

Functionalist - Parsons (G672)

Card 3

Front

Status frustrataion

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

strain theory

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Anomie

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