Sociology Research Methods

HideShow resource information
What is meant by the term secondary data?
Data which already exists, which can then be used by the researcher
1 of 60
What is meant by the term data?
Information collected as part of a research project
2 of 60
What is meant by the primary data?
New data produced by the researcher during the research process
3 of 60
What is meant by the term quantitative data?
Numerical data
4 of 60
What is meant by the term qualitative data?
All types of data that is not in the form of numbers
5 of 60
What is meant by the term validity?
Data which presents a true and accurate description or movement
6 of 60
What is meant by the term reliability?
When different researchers use the same methods and obtain the same results
7 of 60
What is meant by the term interpretivism?
An approach which focuseson the meanings and definitions which guide and direct behaviour
8 of 60
What is meant by the term positivism?
An approach which attempts to explain behaviour in terms of cause ad effect relationships
9 of 60
What is meant by the term covert observations?
Participants are unaware that that they are being observed as part of a research project
10 of 60
What is meant by the term ethics?
Beliefs about what is right and wrong
11 of 60
What is meant by the term hypothesis?
A statement that can be tested about the relationship between the two variables
12 of 60
What is meant by the term variables?
Factors which affect behaviour and can vary or change
13 of 60
What is meant by the term replication?
Repeating an experiment or research study under the same conditions
14 of 60
What is meant by the term correlation?
A measurement of strength of the realtionhip between two or more variables
15 of 60
What is meant by the term labrotary experiments?
An experiment concluded in specially built surroundings
16 of 60
What is meant by the term field experiments?
An experiment conducted in everyday social settings
17 of 60
What is meant by the term experimental effect?
Any unintended effect of the experiment on a participant
18 of 60
What is meant by the term Hawthorne effect?
changes in behaviour of participants resulting from an awareness that they are taking part in an experiment
19 of 60
What is meant by the term experimenter bias?
The unintended effec of the experimenter on the participant
20 of 60
What is meant by the term social surveys?
Systematic collection of the same type of data from a particular population
21 of 60
What is meant by the term sample?
A selection from the research population
22 of 60
What is meant by the term sampling unit?
A member of the research population
23 of 60
What is meant by the term sampling frame?
A list of members of the research population
24 of 60
What is neant by the term random sampling?
A sample which gives every member of the sampling frame an equal chance of being selected
25 of 60
What is meant by the term systematic sampling?
A systematic seection of people fromthe sampling frame
26 of 60
What is meant by the term stratified sampling?
A sample which attempts to reflect particular characteristics of the researc population
27 of 60
What is meant by the term snowball sample?
Members of the group select each other
28 of 60
What is meant by the term volunteer sample?
Members of the sample are self-selected
29 of 60
What is meant by the term response rate?
The percentage of the sample that participates in the research
30 of 60
What is meant by the term self-completion questionnaire?
A questionnaire completed by the respondents
31 of 60
What is meant by the term structured interviews?
A questionnaire read out by the interviewer who also records the answers
32 of 60
What is meant by the term operationaisle?
Translating concepts into various catergories
33 of 60
What is meant by the term coding?
Classifying answers to various catergories
34 of 60
What is meant by the term open-questions?
Questions which allowsthe respondents to anwer in their own words
35 of 60
What is meant by the term closed-questions?
Questions in which the range of responders is fixed by the researcher
36 of 60
What is meant by the term postal questionnaires?
A questionnaire mailed to the respondents with a request to mail it back after completion
37 of 60
What is meant by the term pilot study?
A plelminary study designed to identify the problems with the main study
38 of 60
What is meant b the term semi-structured interviews?
Interviewer is not allowed to probe with additional questions
39 of 60
What is meant by the term unstructured interviews?
A few pre-set questions wih certain topics the researcher wishes to cover
40 of 60
What is meant by the term group inteviews?
Interviews which involves an interviewer and a group of respondents
41 of 60
Wht i meant by the term focus groups?
Group interviews in which the interviewer encourages respondents to discuss topics with each other
42 of 60
What is meant by the term interviewer bias?
The effect that the interviewer has on respondent's answers
43 of 60
What is meant by the term rapports?
A friendly, trusting and understanding relatioships
44 of 60
What is meant by the term participant observations?
The researher participates in the activities of those he or she is observing
45 of 60
What is meant by the term ethnography?
The study of the way of life of a group of people
46 of 60
What is meant by the term overt observations?
The identity of the researher and purpose of the research are made clear to those being studied
47 of 60
What is meant by the term key informant?
A member of the group being observed who develops a close relationship with the researcher
48 of 60
What is meant by the term non-participant obserations?
the researcher observes, but does not participate in the activities of those being studied
49 of 60
What i meant by the term offical statistics?
Statistics produced by local an nationa government, government agencies and organisations funded by the government
50 of 60
What is meant by the term formal content analysis?
A method which seeksto classify an quantify the content of a document
51 of 60
What is meant by the term thematic analysis?
A method which seeks to identify the themes, motive and ideologies which underline a document
52 of 60
What is meant by the term textual analysis?
A method which closely examines the 'text' of a document to see how it encourages a particular reading and creates a particular impression
53 of 60
What i meant by the term audience research?
An investigation of audience understanding and response to documents
54 of 60
What is meant by the term triangulation?
Combining different research methods and different types of data in order to check the validity and reliability of findings
55 of 60
What is meant by the term methodological pluralism?
Combining different research methods and different kinds of data in order to build up a fuller picture of social life
56 of 60
What is meant by the term comparative studies?
Studies which make comparisons between societies and different groups within the same society
57 of 60
Which theoritcalists woul use experiments?
Positivists would use it because they can get quantitative data out of the results so they can get patterns. They usually use lab experiments
58 of 60
What are the characteristis of structured interviews?
Fixed list of questions, verbal face-to-face delivery of a questionnaire, data can be analsyed for trends and statistical correlations, resulting data can be presented in quantittative form and set range of response catergories
59 of 60
What are the advantages of structured interviews?
High in reliability/replicability, fixed response catergories produce quantitative data, pre-coded questions enable data to be placed on computer, patterns trends and statistical correlations can be identified from this data
60 of 60

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is meant by the term data?

Back

Information collected as part of a research project

Card 3

Front

What is meant by the primary data?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is meant by the term quantitative data?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is meant by the term qualitative data?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

amylouise_

Great revision materials but difficult to understand as a lot of spelling mistakes

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Sociological research methods resources »