Sociology of the family studies

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Decline in family size due to cost of child care
Williams. Average family size in the UK has decreased in the past 30 years from 3.1 people in 1961 to 2.4 people in 2006. Cost of childcare is nearly 1/4 of households incme (Day Care trust)
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Decline in marriages/ Changes in expectations of marriage
Alan and crow. Main focus of a marriage is love. In the past, women didn't have the financial independence to seprate from their partner but more economic freedoms now days has meant people don't have to stay with one another.
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Decline in marriages
Alan + Crow. some feared divorce. Many choose to cohabit without its legal ties to marriage.
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Changes in expectations of marriage
Giddens. options of divorce-people no longer have to stay trapped in 'empty shell' marriages' - divorce now socially accpetable.
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What did Giddens say about confluent love
Peope are now marrying for confluent love - marriage is now more about intimacy, closeness and emotion rather than traditional obligations. Marriage increasingly unstable + fragile
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Changes in attitudes towards marriage
Diana Gittins. In 1940s 2/3 divorces were bought forth by husbands, by 2000 - 70% bought by women. May indicate women more disilusioned with marriage than men or may reflect greater need to settle financial + housing arrangements
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Increase in cohabitation due to better contraception
Alan + Crow. Don't have to worry about pregnancy outside of marriage due to better contraception
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Increase in lone parent households
Alan + Crow. Due to: significant rise of never married women + increase in divorce
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Women's aspirations have changed
Sue Sharpe. Attitued of w/c girls in London have changed from early 1970's to 1990's. She found girls were more confident, assertive, ambitious + commited to gender equality
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The nuclear family is no longer conventional
Roseneil + Budgeon. Families shouldn'tbe taken for granted as the basic unit of society because nt main type of family in western societies
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What is the idenified reasons for this?
rise of divorce over past 30 years, rise of children bought up in lone parent families and increased number of women not having children
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Increase of beanpole families
Brannen. Sees extended families as long and thin like a beanpole. Different generations are in contact because of childcare costs, a result of divorce and an ageing population (looking after the elderly)
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Formation of the 'sandwich generation'
Grundy +Henrietta. Women feel it's their duty to look after their old parents and help their own children. They are sandwhiched between the two. People are having children later in life resulting in older parents with eldelry grandparents
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Increase of lone parenting
Smart. Children tried to treat both parents in a way that was fair - spending equal amount of time with both of them. It was a routine for children that had been switching from house to huse from a young age
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Sexual diversity
Weeks et al. Large degree of choice occuring in gay and lesbian families. Weeks terms them as "chosen families"
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Importance of choice imapcting on nature of families
Alan + Crow. Used to be a clearer pattern of growing up, leaving home, getting married + having kids but this isn't so fixed now. There's increased life choices avaliable in UK. People can choose to have kids w/o marriage with less stigma attached
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Rise of individualism
Beck + Beck. The norms which define appropiate behaviour are becoming less powerful. A a result, people are freer from restriction to develop as individuals. Value is placed on self expression, individual fulfilment + independence
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What did Beck + Beck say about marriage
Marriage can restrict freedom + independence, leading to divorce as a result of individualism
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Card 2

Front

Alan and crow. Main focus of a marriage is love. In the past, women didn't have the financial independence to seprate from their partner but more economic freedoms now days has meant people don't have to stay with one another.

Back

Decline in marriages/ Changes in expectations of marriage

Card 3

Front

Alan + Crow. some feared divorce. Many choose to cohabit without its legal ties to marriage.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Giddens. options of divorce-people no longer have to stay trapped in 'empty shell' marriages' - divorce now socially accpetable.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Peope are now marrying for confluent love - marriage is now more about intimacy, closeness and emotion rather than traditional obligations. Marriage increasingly unstable + fragile

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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