sociology Ms Howell

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Multiculturalism- Barker 2003
Says the purpose of multiculturalism is to celebrate difference eg. teaching multi faith religious education.
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Culture- Strinati 1995
The media is largely responsible for creating popular culture.
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Globalisation- McLuhan 1989
'Global Village'- is used to describe globalisation because the world has become a smaller place.
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Social Control- Lees 1993
Studied girls in secondary school. she found that informal social control was in place to ensure that girls sexuality was regulated. She believed that in effect boys were policing and controlling girl's behaviour.
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Social Control- Dennis 1993
Looked at the links between family,type and crime. He found that in past traditionally families had exercised social control. So children didnt become involved in crime. Fatherless families do not have male role models so there is an increase.
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Social Control- Szazs 1971- A Marxist
The label 'mental illness' has been used as method of social control. The powerful in society use this term to control to deal with groups of people who they view as socially disruptive.
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Representing social groups- Mc Robbie
Researched how young women were being encouraged to value romance and getting/keeping a man. 'Slimblodeness'.
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Representing social groups- Currie
Beautification has increased has increased in teen magazine over the last 20 years
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Sexuality/Identity- Weeks 1987
Not many would say 'I am heterosexual; in relation to their identity, instead say 'I'm Gay/Lesbian' makes a statement about belonging and your relationship to dominant sexual codes.
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Sexuality/Identity- Weeks 1991
Argues that 'sexual identification is a strange thing' and more complex than other aspects of identity.
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Sexuality/Identity- Reiss 1961
Found that young male prostitutes,or 'rent boys' regarded themselves as heterosexual,despite having sex with men for money, they actively despised the men as a way of neutralizing their behaviour.
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Sexuality/Identity- Plummer 1996
Supports Mclntosh's ideas, seeing homosexuality as a process and discussing the 'homesexual career' where males who accept the label of homosexuality will seek out others and join the stereotypical characteristics of homosexuals.
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The homosexual role- Mclntosh 1996
Argued that the role of homosexual male involves certain expectations or cultural characteristics. The homosexual role may include effeminate mannerisms, a higher voice and attention to appearance.
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Sexuality/Identity- Rich 1980
Argues that women's sexuality is oppressed by men in patriarchal society, through institutions such as marriage, through sexual violence/**** and through the sexual objectification of women.
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Disability/Identity- Shakespeare 1996
Argues that disabled people are often socialised into this way of seeing themselves as victims. creating 'Victim Mentality'.
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Disability/Identity- Carol Gill 1997
A polio survor who became disabled later in life,' when you become a member of the group that you have previously felt fear or pity for, you cant help but turn those feeling on yourself'.
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Disability/Identity- Zola 1982
'The very vocabulary we use to describe ourselves is borrowed from (discriminatory able-bodied) society. we are de-formed, dis-ordered, ab-normal and in-valid. lead to form of 'learned helplessness'.- fail to take action and help themselves.
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Disability/Identity-Murugami 2009
Argues that a disabled person has the ability to construct a self-identity that accepts their impairment but is independent of it. they see themselves as a person first then there disability as just one of their characteristics.
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Gender Identities-Desmond Morris + Robert Winston
Came up with the view that these biological differences lead to social differences between males and females known as 'biological determinism' or 'evolutionary psychology'.
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Peer Group- Skelton/Francis
Discovered that playgrounds are dominated by space, where boys use large amounts of space for excluding non-sporty boys and girls. Peer groups become more influential as children socialise outside school.
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Peer Groups- Bennett's 2006
Found out childhood influences can contribute/ last all throughout a person's age. E.g middle aged punks in kent shared the same liking to punk music leading to a connection.
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Culture- Strinati 1995


The media is largely responsible for creating popular culture.

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Globalisation- McLuhan 1989


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Social Control- Lees 1993


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Social Control- Dennis 1993


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