Sociology Basic Keywords

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Marxism
Sociological perspective that stems from ideas of Karl Marx. Society is run by ruling classes for their own benefit.
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Feminism
Perspective looks at social phenomena from the views of women. Feminists argue that male sociologist only saw society from their point of view.
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Functionalism
Approach which seeks to explain social phenomena and institutes in terms of their role in society.
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Interactionism
Believe only way we can understand society is by starting at an individual level + working upwards. Believe there is no such thing as society but the individuals that constitute it
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Weber
Sociologist that argued that ideas rather than economics were important in bringing about social change.
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Durkheim
French sociologist who was influential in development of functionalism, he believed that even individual acts were governed by society.
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New Right
Perspective that stresses the importance of the individual and the free market in society.
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Phenomenology
Believe that sociologists should be concerned with what happens on the surface of society rather than looking for what is hidden. Our ideas should be based on society as they are rather than on grand theories
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Social Construction
Idea that social 'facts' are created by social processes rather than existing objectively.
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Ethnocentrism
The belief that one's own culture is superior to others.
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Culture
A group's social life.
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Custom
Traditional ways of behaving in particular situations.
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Deviance
Behaviour that breaks a norm.
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Value
A widely held belief that something is worthwhile or desirable.
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Norm
A value put into practice: a specific rule of behaviour.
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Status
The position of a member of a society within a culture.
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Ascribed status
A status fixed at birth.
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Achieved status
A status that people achieve for themselves.
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Role
Specific set of norms/rules that goes with a particular status in society.
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Society
A social system made up of social institutions.
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Cultural diversity
A society where different cultures exist.
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Subculture
Group within a larger culture that shares many of the same values but also have their own values that they share.
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Sociobiology
Study of how human biology influences our behaviour.
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Socialistaion
Process of learning a culture.
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Primary Socialisation
Process of learning the basics of culture in the early stages of life.
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Secondary Socialisation
Socialisation that continues throughout life, through institutions such as education etc
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Internalised
Accepting something so that it becomes 'taken for granted'.
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Sanctions
Rewards/punishments for keeping/braking norms.
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Card 2

Front

Perspective looks at social phenomena from the views of women. Feminists argue that male sociologist only saw society from their point of view.

Back

Feminism

Card 3

Front

Approach which seeks to explain social phenomena and institutes in terms of their role in society.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Believe only way we can understand society is by starting at an individual level + working upwards. Believe there is no such thing as society but the individuals that constitute it

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sociologist that argued that ideas rather than economics were important in bringing about social change.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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