Sociology Key terms!

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Social Structure
The network of social institutions and social relationships that form the "building blocks" of society.
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Primary Socialisation
Socialisation during the early years of childhood carried out in the family and close community.
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Culture
The language, beliefs, values, norms, customs, roles, skills and knowledge that make up the way of life of any society.
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Beanpole Family
A multi-generation extended family, in a pattern which is long and thin, with fewer aunts, uncles and cousins, reflecting fewer children being born in each generation, but people living longer.
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Birthrate
The number of live births per thousand of the population per year.
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Values
General beliefs about what is right or wrong, and about the important standards which are worth maintaining and achieving in society
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Norms
Social rules which define correct or approved behaviour in any society or group
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Life Chances
The chances of obtaining those things defined as desirable or of avoiding those things defined as undesirable in a society.
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Social Mobility
Movement of groups or individuals up and down the social hierarchy.
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Segregated Conjugal Roles
A clear division and separation between the roles of males and females in a marriage or cohabiting couple.
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Serial Monogamy
A form of marriage in which a person keeps marrying and divorcing a series of different partners, but is only married to one person at a time.
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Symmetrical Family
A family where the roles of husband and wife or cohabiting partners have become more alike or equal.
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Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a women will have during her child bearing years.
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Status
Sometimes refers to a position someone occupies in society, but more commonly refers to the amount of prestige or social importance a person has in the eyes of others.
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Ascribed Status
Status which is given to an individual at birth and usually can't be changed.
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Achieved Status
Status which is achieved through an individual's own efforts.
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Social Cohesion
The bonds or 'glue' that bring people together and integrate them into a united society.
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Functional Prerequisites
The basic needs that must be met if society is to survive.
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Meritocracy
A society in which occupational or other status positions are achieved on the basis of individual merit like talent, skills and educational qualifications, rather than who you know or the family you were born into.
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Equality of Educational Opportunity
The principle that everyone, regardless of his or her social class background, ability to pay fees, gender or disability, should have an equal chance of doing as well in education as her or his ability will allow.
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Marketisation of Education
The process whereby services, like education, that were previously controlled and run by the state, have government or local council control reduced, and become subject to the free market forces of supply and demand, based on competition and consumer
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Secondary Socialisation
Socialisation that takes place beyond the family and close community, such as through the education system, the mass media and the workplace.
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Reconstituted Family
A family where one or both partners have been previously married, or living as a cohabitating couple, and bring with children of a previous relationship.
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Labelling
Defining a person or group in a certain way- as a particular 'type' of person or group.
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Self-fulfilling Prophecy
People acting in response to predictions of their behaviour, thereby making the predictions come true. Often applied to the affects of streaming in schools or how people respond to being labelled as mentally ill.
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Master Status
The dominant status of an individual which overrides all other characteristics of that person, such as that of an 'ex con', a druggie and someone who is mentally ill.
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Nuclear Family
A family with two generations of parents and children, living together in one household.
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Horizontally Extended Family
A family with two generations of parents, aunts and/or uncles and children, living together in one household.
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Vertically Extended Family
A family with three generations of grandparents, parents and children, living together in one household.
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Educational Triage
The way schools divide pupils into 3 groups: those who are likely to succeed in exams whatever happens, those who have a chance of succeeding if they get some extra help and those who have little chance of succeeding, whatever is done.
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Integrated Conjugal Roles
Roles in marriage or cohabitating couple where male and female partners share domestic tasks, childcare, decision making and income earning.
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Kinship
Relations of blood, marriage/ civil partnership or adoption.
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Life Expectancy
An estimate of how long people are expected to live from a certain age.
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Mortality Rate
The number of deaths per year scaled to the size of the population.
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Parentocracy
Where a child's education is dependant upon wealth and wishes of parents, rather than efforts and ability of pupils.
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Privatised Nuclear Family
A self-contained, self-reliant and home centered family unit that is isolated and separated from its extended kin, neighbours and local community life.
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Halo Effect
When pupils become favourably or unfavourably stereotyped on the basis of earlier impressions by the teacher, and are rewarded and favoured or penalised in future teacher-student encounters.
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Fertility Rate
A general term used to describe either the general fertility rate or the total fertility rate.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Socialisation during the early years of childhood carried out in the family and close community.

Back

Primary Socialisation

Card 3

Front

The language, beliefs, values, norms, customs, roles, skills and knowledge that make up the way of life of any society.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A multi-generation extended family, in a pattern which is long and thin, with fewer aunts, uncles and cousins, reflecting fewer children being born in each generation, but people living longer.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The number of live births per thousand of the population per year.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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