Sociology gender and educational attainment

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What is meant by children's behaviour is gendered?
This is the result of primary and secondary socialisation, where boys and girls a treated differently, females = wear pink, be covered up, boys = stay out late, like football
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What do Edwards and David (2000) discuss?
Primary socialisaton is gender differntiated, which gives girls an advantage in education however ultimatly contributes to patriarchal society.
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How do Edwards and David (2000) explain the better language skills of girs?
Mothers tend to talk and socialise baby girls more. Females are encouraged from a young age to talk, explain, justify and express themselves, which is supported by girls taking subjects with a heavy reliance of articulate communication,eg. humanities
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Who discusses language codes?
Bernstein 1977
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How can language codes be used to explain females better educational attainment?
Education operates using elaborate code, this benefits females as they've been socialised to read and talk more therefore understand what is needed from them to be successful in education.
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How is female success not being replicated in the media?
Men still dominate most commercial and entertainment communication areas, for eg. more male actors/directors/novelists.
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How is female success not being replicated in the media?
Men still dominate most commercial and entertainment communication areas, for eg. more male actors/directors/novelists.
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Who discusses male overconfidence?
Kindon and Thompson (1999)
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What do Kindon and Thompson say?
Male overconfidence can blind them from what is required for edu. success. Boys interupt more frequently and answer even when they don't know the answer. Suprised when they fail exams = 'bad luck' Girls more realistic and work hard to ensure success
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What does Francis (2000) suggest?
That boys have more unrealitic career aspirations which require little academic success (eg. footballer)
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What is a feature of girls socialisation suggested by Edwards and David (2000)?
That girls are socialised to conform to authority and used to more standard, conventional forms of behaviour.
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When girls enter high school how are they likely to act?
Edward and David (2000) say thy will be prepared to conform to classroom rules, work independently and highly experienced with speaking and listening.
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What do Burns and Bracey (2001) suggest?
Girls work harder and more motivated than boys. They put more effort into homework. More organised and meet deadlines.
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What does Moi (1991) discuss?
Disadvantaged groups require all the educational capital they can get if they want to advance in society.
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What do Edward and David (2000) say about boys behaviour?
That is is shaped and policed by their peer group, organised around mascline and 'macho' values, imposing heteronormative expectations on each other
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What does Frosh (2001) state?
That boys are part of subcultures and they regard school work as feminine therefore exhibit hyper-masculine behaviour, eg.bullying,disruptive
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What does Mac an Ghaill (1991) discuss? RESEARCH IN FOCUS
Gender regimes within school. Formation of masculinties. How heteronormativity is reinforced.
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What were the 4 types of masculinities found by Mac an Ghaill (1991)
'Macho lads' (undergoing a crisis of masculinties), 'academic achievers','the new enterprisers','the real Englishmen'
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What did Mac an Ghaill discover about heteronormativity?
That heterosexual set of norms and values were taken for granted in classroom discussions about gender and sexuality. Leading to young gay men feeling confused, ignored, categorised and stigmatised.
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What is bedroom cuture, who discusses it?
Mcrobbie (1991) girls have a subculture where they have space in their room to study and gain linguistic skills
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What is 'genderquake'?
Wilkinson (1994) - women in their 20's earn slightly more than men, shows how lifestyle expectations, family planning, and influencial models available to women which challenge the traditional gender roles
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How is bedroom culture used in cross-cultural discussion?
Different social groups have different norms and values, with different gendered socialisation processe, which place more emphasis on the time girls spend studying
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How does girls primary socialisation perpetuate (contribute&maintain) bedroom culture?
Girls are encouraged to spend more time reading and doing homework, therefore will be encouraged to do lots of studying at home, therefore to make it comfortable, they do it in their bedroom, a relaxed environment to concentrate
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How does the way boys are socialised conflict with the culture of schools?
boys are socialised to be physical, adventurous and sporty, which conflicts with school which demands they sit still for prolonged periods, listen and conform.
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What do girls do increasingly more of in their free time than boys do?
Spend time on social media, messaging friends.
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What has a change in economic climate meant?
British manual labour industry has been replaced witha service/knowledge industry
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Why has the change in economic climate been beneficial to females?
The emphasis on office based, presentational and interpersonal skills, which are typically female skills, can now allow women to be best for the job, gaining themselves more independence
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Why has the change in economic climate been bad for men?
Boys now feel removed from education and employment - 'crisis of masculinity' Boys lack motivation, have low self esteem and form anti-school subcutures which reject school values
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What examples of policy to do with gender and employment are there?
1970 Equal pay act, 1975 Sex discrimination act, Employment protection act
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what 3 external factors affect gender edu. attainment and exper.?
1. more female role models 2. legislation to improve equality 3. changing attitudes of gender roles
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What 4 internal factors affect gender edu. attainment and exper.?
1. Labelling/SFP 2.Subcultures 3.Curriculum 4.Feminisation of work
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What did Sharpe (1994) discuss?
womens changing aspirations, in the 70s females wanted, 'love,marriage,husband,children' but in the 90s they wanted 'independence, job, career' and would get this by being highly educated
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How did the national curriculum change education?
Girls couldnt opt out of traditionally male subjects such as maths and science. It also added coursework in addition to exams.
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Who discusses feinisation of education, what is it?
Sewell 2010 - this is a matriarchal environment, that benefits girls, making boys feel uncomfortable in their learning environ. eg. more female teachers
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What 3 things influence gendered subject choices?
1. male gaze - male expectations influence female behaviour 2.perpetuated gendered identities (via subcultures) 3. gendered primary socialisation
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Card 2

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What do Edwards and David (2000) discuss?

Back

Primary socialisaton is gender differntiated, which gives girls an advantage in education however ultimatly contributes to patriarchal society.

Card 3

Front

How do Edwards and David (2000) explain the better language skills of girs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Who discusses language codes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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How can language codes be used to explain females better educational attainment?

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