Sociology - Family and Households Defintions

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  • Created by: yhtammy
  • Created on: 22-03-16 15:57
Household
A group of people who live together and share things such as meals, bills, facilities or chores, or one personliving alone.
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Beanpole family
A family that is vertically extended not horizontally extended, e.g. grandparents, parents and children, but not, aunts, uncles and cousins.
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Ageism
The negative stereotyping of people on the basis of their age, e.g. the old are often potrayed as vulnerable, incompetent or irrational or a burden to society.
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Birth Rate
The number of live births per thousand of the population per year.
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Childhood
A socially defined age-status. There are major differences in how childhood is defined, both historically and between cultures.
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Civil Partnership
Same sex couple
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Conjugal Roles
The roled played by husband and wife. Segregated roles are where the male is the breadwinner and the wife is the homemaker, with leisure spent separetly. In joint conjugal roles, husband and wife each perform both roles.
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Death Rate
The number of deaths per thousand per year.
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Demography
The study of population, including birth, death, fertility and infant mortality rates, immigration and emigration, and age structure, as well as the changes in these.
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Dependency Culture
Where people assume that the state will support them, rather than relying on their own efforts and taking responsability for their family.
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Domestic Labour
Work performed in the home, such as childcare, cooking, and cleaning. Functionalists see it as part of the expressive role performed by women, while feminists regard it as a major source of women's oppression.
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Dual Burden
When a person is responsible for two jobs. Usually applied to women who are in paid work but also responsible for domestic labour.
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Emotion Work
The work involved in meeting the emotional needs of other people, e.g. looking after a sick child involves responding to emotional as well as physical needs. Some sociologists argue that women carry a triple burden.
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Empathy
An understanding of how another person thinks, feels or acts, acheived by putting oneself in their place.
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Empty Shell Marriage
A marriage in name only, where a couple continues to live under the same roof but as separate individuals, It may occur where divorce is difficult for legal, financial or religious reasons, where a couple decides to stay together for their children.
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Exchange Theory
The idea that people create, maintain or break off relationships depending on the costs and benefits of doing so; e.g. a person may provide a relative with accomodation (cost) in return for help with childcare (benefit.)
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Exploitation
Paying workers less than the value of their labour.
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Expressive Role
The caring, nuturing, homemaker role in the family. Functionalists argue that women are biologically suited to performing this role, but feminists reject this.
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Extended Family
Any group of kin (people related by, blod, marriage or adoption) extended beyond the nuclear family. The family may be extended vertically. (e.g. grandparents) or horizontally (e.g. aunts, uncles, cousins) or both.
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Family Diversity
The idea that there is a range of different family types, rather than in a single dominant one (such as the nuclear family).
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Family Practices
The routine actions through which we create our sense of 'being a family member', such as doing the shopping, DIY.
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Family Structure
The composition of a group of people who live together as a family unit. Structures include the nuclear family, extended family, reconstituted family, lone-parent and same-sex family.
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Families of Choice
(also called choosen families) people who are not neccessarily realted by blood or marriage but who feel a sense of belonging together and who choose to define themselves as family. For example, gay and lesbian people have created support networks.
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Fertility Rate
The total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children women will have during their fertile years. For statistical purposes this is 15-44.
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Fodism
A type of industrial production based on a detailed division of labour, using closely supervised, low-skilled workers and assembley-line technology to mass-produce standardised goods.
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Industrialisation
The shift from an agricultural economy to one based on factory production. In Britain industralisation occured from aboute the late 18th to mid 19th centuries. Industralisation often occurs along with urbanisation.
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Infant Mortality Rate
The number of infants who die their first birthday, per thousand per year.
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Instumental Role
The breadwinner or provider role in the family.
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Migration
Involves the movement of people from place to place. It can be internal, within a given society or transnational, crossing national frontiers. Migrants may settle permantely in a new place, stay temporarily, or move to and fro between places.
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Mobility
Movement; change of position. Sociologists distinguish between geographical mobility, in which people move from one place (e.g. in search of work), and social mobility, in which they change position or status in a hierarchy or stratification system.
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Natural Change
The difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a population, resulting in either a natural increase or a natural decrease.
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Net Migration
The difference between the number of immigrants entering a country and the number of emigrants leaving it.
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Nuclear Family
A two-generation family of a man and woman and their dependent children, own or adopted.
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Patriarchy
Literally, 'rule by the father'. Feminists use the term to describe a society based on male dominance.
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Post-Fordism
A type of industrial production. A highly skilled, adaptable workforce, combined with computerised technolgy, means that production takes the form of 'flexible specialisation', able to respond swiftly to changing consumer demands. (Nice market)
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Proletariat
The working class in capitalist society. They own no means of production and are 'wage slaves', forced to sell their labour power to the bourgeoise in order to survive.
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Pure Relationships
One which only exists solely to meet each partners needs. Couples stay together for love, happiness or sexual attraction, rather than because of tradition or duty, or for the sake of the children.
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Reconstituted Family
A stepfamily, in which one or both partners has children from a previous relationship.
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Reserve Army of Labour
A Marxist concept describing groups of who can be brought into the workplace when there is a labour shortage as the capitalist economy expands during a boom, and discarded when it contracts.
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Role
How someone whi occupies a particular status is expected to act; e.g. someone playing the role of a bus driveris expected to drive safely.
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Secularisation
The decline of religion; the process whereby religious beliefs, practices and institutions lose their importance of influence; e.g. fewer couples now marry in church and many more people disregard religious teachings on issues like divorce.
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Separtism
A radical feminist idea that women should live independently
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A family that is vertically extended not horizontally extended, e.g. grandparents, parents and children, but not, aunts, uncles and cousins.

Back

Beanpole family

Card 3

Front

The negative stereotyping of people on the basis of their age, e.g. the old are often potrayed as vulnerable, incompetent or irrational or a burden to society.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The number of live births per thousand of the population per year.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A socially defined age-status. There are major differences in how childhood is defined, both historically and between cultures.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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