Sociology - Ethnic Differences in Achievement (Internal)

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What did Gillborn & Youdell suggest about labelling?
Teachers had 'racialised expectations' (labels) about black pupils - more discipline problems & threatening, more likely to be punished for same behaviours, & felt picked on.
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In what 2 ways do racist stereotypes lead to the underachievement of black pupils?
Higher levels of exclusion; Lower sets or streams (creating a self-fulfilling prophecy).
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How did teachers treat Asian pupils differently?
Used simplistic language (believed they have a poor grasp on English); Mispronounced children's names; Saw them as a problem they could ignore.
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How did primary school teachers view Asian pupils?
Passive & conformist; Asian boys = 'feminine', vulnerable & less able to protect themselves.
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What are the 4 types of pupil subcultures suggested by Sewell?
Conformists; Innovators; Retreatists; Rebels.
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What are conformists?
(Largest group) - keen to succeed, accepted school's goals & had friends from different ethnic groups.
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What are innovators?
(Second largest group) - pro-education but anti-school, valued success but not the teachers' approval.
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What are retreatists?
A tiny minority of isolated individuals, disconnected from school & black subcultures outside it.
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What are rebels?
Small but highly visible minority of black pupils who rejected the school's rules & conformed to the 'black macho lad' stereotype.
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What has research shown when students reject negative labels?
Some remain committed to succeed; Fuller - year 11 girls maintained a positive self-image by rejecting stereotypes (innovators - didn't seek teachers' approval).
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What is institutional racism?
Discrimination against ethnic minorities that is built into institutions on an unconscious basis.
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What is the critical race theory?
Institutional racism is a deep-rooted, 'locked in' feature of the education system.
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What is meant by the ethnocentric curriculum?
The schools' attitudes & policies favour the white culture & English language to ethnic minorities'.
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Briefly describe 3 other examples of institutional racism.
Selection & segregation (marketisation - stereotypes can influence decisions); Assessment (based on teachers' judgement); Access to opportunities (whites twice as likely to be gifted & talented); The new IQism (tests - blacks placed in lower sets).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In what 2 ways do racist stereotypes lead to the underachievement of black pupils?

Back

Higher levels of exclusion; Lower sets or streams (creating a self-fulfilling prophecy).

Card 3

Front

How did teachers treat Asian pupils differently?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How did primary school teachers view Asian pupils?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 4 types of pupil subcultures suggested by Sewell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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