All Education Sociologists

Durkheim (functionalist)
Education passes on social norms and values in order to integrate individuals into society. It also creates value consensus and social order.
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Parsons (functionalist)
Schools are a bridge between the family and adult roles of society. They pass on a universal value of achievement and selects people for the correct roles for their future, education is meritocratic.
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Davis and Moore (functionalist)
Society sorts its members into different positions; there are rules for how education does this called 'principles of stratification'.
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Bowles and Gintis (marxists)
Correspondence Principle- there is a correspondence between pupil experiences at school and adult work. Eg: Hierarchy, rewards, rules to follow. This is the 'hidden curriculum.
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Bourdieu (marxist)
Cultural capital (language, skills, knowledge and attitudes) is the reason that middle class children go on to fill the top jobs in society
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Gilborn and Youdell (interactionists)
Black pupils are more likely to be disciplined than their white classmates for the same behaviour, black students also felt that their teachers had low expectations of them.
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Lacey (interactionist)
Anti school subcultures are formed as a result of streaming. He did a study at a grammar school where he found that even though pupils who were selected for grammar schools were supposably 'bright' the students in low streams still formed subcultures
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Fuller (interactionist)
Looked at a group of black girls in year 11 who were high ability but felt their teachers were racist. They didn't work for their teachers approval, they formed a subculture where they worked together and succeeded.
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Willis (interactionist)
Studied group of lads who formed an anti school subculture who were disruptive in lessons as a way of gaining respect from peers. Lads were working class, destined to have factory jobs so beleived school was no use to them.
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Becker (interactionist)
Teachers judge pupils in comparison to the 'perfect pupil' image they have. They look at social class, appearance, personality and speech.
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Ball (interactionist)
Pupils in top streams tend to be from higher social classes.
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Woods (interactionist)
There are lots of different reactions to school but non conformist ones are likely to come from working class pupils.
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Halsey
The most important factor preventing working class students from staying on at school is the lack of financial support.
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Douglas
children in poor living conditions don't do well in ability tests compared to those who have a comfortable home life. Parental interest is the most important factor affecting achievement.
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Sugarman
Pupils from non manual and manual backgrounds have different outlooks. Pupils from manual backgrounds live for immediate gratification but students from non mutual deferred their gratification and were ambitious.
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Hyman
Values of the working class are a self imposed barrier to improving their position. The working class place a low value on education.
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Bernstein
Working class families and children speak in restricted speech code while middle class families and children speak in elaborated speech code along with teachers. Giving working class pupils a disadvantage as they may not understand at school.
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Gillborn
Teachers sometimes negatively label black students as a challenge to school authority which often ends in a negative self fulfilling prophecy.
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Wright
Even though teachers said they were committed to equal opportunities, Asian girls got less attention from teachers and Afro Caribbean were more likely to be sent out and punished.
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Archer and Francis
Chinese parents see education as hugely important which created a desire to achieve within their families.
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Mitsos and Browne
Teaching had been feminised. Women are more likely to be classroom teachers providing girls with positive role models.
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Swann and Graddol
high female achievement is a result of the positive interactions they have with teachers; teachers spend time helping girls with work not behaviour management.
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Jackson
Schools label boys negatively. They are associated with poor behaviour and low achievement.
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Archer
The achievement of girls is fragile as it masks the continuing problems that girls still face. I.e: working class black girls are labelled ad loud and aggressive.
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Sue Sharpe
Did a study of girls aspirations and compared them from the 70s to the 90s. Found that aspirations changed from marriage and family to jobs and careers.
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Equal Pay Act (1971)
Made it illegal to pay men and woman different wages for the same job.
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Sex Discrimination Act (1975)
Employers cannot discriminate on the basis of gender.
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Kelly
Science is a masculinised subject, boys dominate the science classroom.
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1944 Education Act
Tripartite system; grammar/secondary modern/technical schools. 11+ exams. 11+ caused those who failed to be labelled as failures. Culturally biased meaning class inequalities remained.
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1965 Comprehensive System (labour)
All student to the same schools-removal of 11+ exams. Created more equality of opportunity and people were no longer labelled as failures. Schools in middle class areas had better grades than working class areas still.
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1976 Vocational Reforms
Youth Training Schemes:job training for school leavers. GNVQs:practical qualifications. New Deal:people receiving benefits have to attend courses if they didn't accept work. Marxists argue this creates a cheap workforce.
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1988 Education Reform Act
National curriculum, SATs, OFSTED, League tables were all introduced to drive up standards, increase parental choice and encourage competition (marketisation).
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Whitty
Middle class parents have an advantage in education market through knowledge (cultural capital) and the ability to move to an area with better schools (financial capital).
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Ball
National curriculum focuses on subject which are very outdated.
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1997-2010 New Labour Third Way Ideas
Reduced class sizes to 30, introduced numeracy and literacy hour, widened A level subject choice. Aimed to reduce social class inequality; Education action zones, sure start, free school meals and academies.
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2010 Coalition Government
Introduced free schools and changed academy programme. Michael Gove changed A level and GCSE structure. Introduced pupil premium.
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Economic Globalisation
Globalisation of trade, production and consumption. Transnational companies eg.shell manufacture things abroad for UK to consume. Has caused decrease in manufacturing jobs in UK.
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Cultural Globalisation
Rapid spread of ideas and values around the globe our to the growth of ICT and technology. Spreads ideas about anything from fashion to religion.
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Increased Migration
More people moving around the globe for various reasons which may be voluntary (work) or involuntary (refugees). Caused the UK to become much more multi cultural.
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Effect of Economic Globalisation on Education
1.New Labour increased spending to make pupils more employable. 2.Tramsnational companies actually shape curriculum eg. edexcel all written by Pearsons a transnational corporation.
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Effect of cultural Globalisation on Education
1. Challenges the relevance of the national curriculum eg. what type of history and literature we should be learning. 2. Challenges traditional schooling as the same resources can be accessed online eg. youtube.
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Effect of Increased Migration on Education
Education is more multicultural eg. RE now teaches 'the 6 world religions'. Many more faith schools including Jewish and Muslim.
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Mccray and Mchatton
Teachers have to be mindful of a diverse, ever changing student body.
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Rouse and Kemple
Educators have to prepare students to work in a global workforce.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Schools are a bridge between the family and adult roles of society. They pass on a universal value of achievement and selects people for the correct roles for their future, education is meritocratic.

Back

Parsons (functionalist)

Card 3

Front

Society sorts its members into different positions; there are rules for how education does this called 'principles of stratification'.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Correspondence Principle- there is a correspondence between pupil experiences at school and adult work. Eg: Hierarchy, rewards, rules to follow. This is the 'hidden curriculum.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Cultural capital (language, skills, knowledge and attitudes) is the reason that middle class children go on to fill the top jobs in society

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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