sociology- demography

Reasons for the decline in the birth rate (1)
Changes in the position of women (right to vote, easier access to divorce, paid employment, increased educational opportunities). Many women are choosing to delay childbearing or not have them at all, in order to pursue a career.
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Reasons for the decline in the birth rate (2)
Decline in the infant mortality rate (improved housing and better sanitation, better nutrition, better knowledge of hygiene, child health and welfare, improved services for mothers and children).
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Reasons for the decline in the birth rate (3)
Children have become an economic liability (laws banning child labour, introducing compulsory schooling and raising the school leaving age mean that children remain economically dependent on their parents for longer and longer).
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Reasons for the decline in the birth rate (4)
Child centredness- this has encouraged a shift from 'quantity' to 'quality' - parents now have fewer children and lavish more attention and resources on these few.
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Effects of changes in fertility
Smaller families mean that women are more likely to be free to go out to work; children make up a large part of the dependent population; a lower birth rate has consequences for public services.
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Reasons for the decline in the death rate (1)
Improved nutrition- McKeown said better nutrition increased resistance to infection and the survival chances of those who were infected.
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Reasons for the decline in the death rate (2)
Improved medical knowledge, techniques and organisation did help to reduve death rates.
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Reasons for the decline in the death rate (3)
Improvements in housing, purer drinking water, laws to combat the adulteration of food and drink, the pasteurisation of milk, and improved sewage disposal methods.
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Reasons for the decline in the death rate (4)
Other social changes such as a decline of dangerous manual occupations, higher incomes, greater knowledge of the causes of illness, smaller families.
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The ageing population
The average age of the UK population is rising (1971=34.1, 2007=39.6). This is the result of several factors- increasing life expectancy, declining infant mortality, declining fertility.
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Effects of an ageing population (1)
The number of pensioners living alone has increased.
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Effects of an ageing population (2)
Increases the dependency ratio and the burden on the working population as they need to be provided for.
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Effects of an ageing population (3)
Age statuses are socially construction, ageism- often portrayed as vulnerable and a burden to society. This contrasts with traditional societies where they are respected.
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Migration
Refers to the movement of people from place to place. Immigration (movement into an area or society). Emigration (movement out). Net migration (difference between the numbers immigrating and the numbers emigrating).
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Emigration
Until the 1980s, the UK has almost been a net explorer of people; move have emigrated to live elsewhere. Main reasons for emigration are economic recession and unemployment (push) or high wages or better opportunities (pull).
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Recent and future migration patterns
Between 1994 and 2004, immigration rose from 314,000 to 582,000 annually, while emmigration rose from 238,000 to 360,000. Increse because of the expantion of the European Union in 2004.
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The dependency ratio
Migrants are mainly of working age so reduces the ratio. However, immigrant women tend to have higher fertility rates and so leads to a higher dependency ratio by adding more children although they will grow and reach the working age.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Decline in the infant mortality rate (improved housing and better sanitation, better nutrition, better knowledge of hygiene, child health and welfare, improved services for mothers and children).

Back

Reasons for the decline in the birth rate (2)

Card 3

Front

Children have become an economic liability (laws banning child labour, introducing compulsory schooling and raising the school leaving age mean that children remain economically dependent on their parents for longer and longer).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Child centredness- this has encouraged a shift from 'quantity' to 'quality' - parents now have fewer children and lavish more attention and resources on these few.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Smaller families mean that women are more likely to be free to go out to work; children make up a large part of the dependent population; a lower birth rate has consequences for public services.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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