Sociology - Crime and Deviance

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What is deviance?
when someone breaks an unwritten rule of society. That person will behave in a way that is unusual and unexpected
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What is crime?
When someone breaks a law
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What did Lambrosso say about crime?
Says you are born a criminal, believed criminals can be identifies by physical attributes
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What did Gluech say about crime?
Certain traits in personality might result in delinquency
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What is the XXY syndrome?
Male/boys are more aggressive, shows a slight increase in testosterone
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What did Kinsley Davis say about crime?
Prostitution is a society valve for the release of men's sexual frustrations without affecting the monogamous nuclear family
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What does Cohen say about crime?
suggests that another function of deviance is to act as a warning that the institution isn't working well
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What did Hirschi say about crime?
Argues we need to understand crime
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What are Hirschi's bonds of attachment?
>Attachment (the extent to which we care about other people) >Commitment (personal investment we put into our lives) >Involvement (integrated, not time or indication to be deviant) >Belief (How committed you are to upholding societies rules)
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What is the strain theory and who argued it?
Merton - When you cannot reach your goals. Ideas based on "America dream", everyone i theory has an equal chance but in reality not the case. Reaction to not reaching your goals
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What is the strain between goals and means reaction?
>Conformity (continues to adhere to goal and measure) >Innovation (accepted goals of society and finds a different way to achieve them) >Ritualsim (sight of goal lost) >Retreatism (rejects goal and means) >Rebellion (goals and means reject others obt
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What did Rusche and Kirscheimer say about crime?
Marxists - punishment helps rich as it offers free labour and protection of the rich
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What are the criticisms of the traditional Marxist approach?
Ignores other key issues (ethnicity and gender), too focused on class. Too deterministic and over-predicts the amount of crime in working class. Left realists say it focuses largely on the crimes of the powerful and ignores "intra-class" crime
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What are the positives of the Marxists approach to crime?
Offer a useful explanation between crime and capitalist society.
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Are the working class more criminal?
Slapper and Tombe disagree - believe white collar crime is under policed. Marxism ignores women.
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What is New criminology?
Combines traditional Marxism with Labeling theory. Taylor et al agree with traditional Marxists that capitalist society is based on exploitation and class conflict, law enforced in the interest of Bourgeoisie. Capitalism swapped with classless societ
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How is New Criminology anti-deterministic?
Taylor et al take a voluntarism view ( we have free-will) See crime as a meaningful action and a conscious choice. Argue crime a political motive
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What do new criminologists believe the theory of deviance needs to unite?
!. wider origins of deviant act 2. Immediate origins of deviant act 3. Act itself 4. Immediate origins of social reaction 5. Wider origins of social reaction 6. effects of labeling
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What are the weaknesses of the new criminology approach to crime and deviance?
Doesn't make a lot of sense, crimes such as **** and murder rarely have political motive. "gender blind", Ignore wc victims. over romanticizes criminals
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What are the strengths of the New Criminology approach to crime and deviance?
Makes sense when thinking of crimes such as political demonstrations.
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What does Becker say about crime?
Highlights social construction of deviance. no action deviant in itself, has to excite social reaction from others. Depends on who commits it and sees it
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Who are moral entrepreneurs?
Becker describes these people as those who lead a "moral crusade" to change the law and benefit those who it applies
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What did Reiss say about crime?
Looked at male prostitutes and found that many where straight by "gay for pay"
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What are some examples of moral panics?
Mods and Rockers (1960's), Islamic terror (2000's), Mugging (1970's)
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What did McRobbie and Thronton say about Moral panics?
>Frequency (lots of them) >Context (In past would scapegoat a group and create "folk devils") >Reflexivity (some groups create their own moral panics >difficulty(Harder to start today) > Rebound (May be concerned the moral panic will rebound
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What do functionalists think of moral panics?
They believe they serve a useful function (anomie), helps create a collective conscience
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What do Marxists think of moral panics?
Believe it focuses on working class and is negative towards them.
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What do Kidd-Hewitt and Osborne say about crime as a postmodern spectacle?
See media reporting of crime increasingly driven y the need of a "spectacle"
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How do functionalist and pluralism see the media in relation to crime?
see media as a "window to the world" reflecting life how it is. However, critics argue this is naive given the real figure of crime is above the statistics
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Rational choice and situational crime prevention
You need to make the costs of committing the crime less than the benefit
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Routine activity and situational crime prevention
If it is easy to do as part of your day to day activity
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Environmental criminologist and situational crime prevention
Nocturnal economy (most crime committed between 10-2 outside licensed areas)
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Which realism is military policing and what does it mean?
Right - tough policing, more forceful, not tolerating crime
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Which realism is community policing and what does it mean?
Left - Not as tough, more likely to help people
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Does subcultures explain crime in Britain today?
Parker found evidence of 'focal concerns' in his study of working class youths in Liverpool. however, Davies found little evidence of sub cultural values in his study in east-London
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What does subterranean mean?
Below the surface (things we've always wanted to do but can't/don't want to be judged)
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What is Matza's view to sub cultural approach?
Too deterministic, see the deviant as the product of his/her background. Says we are operating within "double standards". Can occasionally let "opposite" values affect our behavior
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What are subterranean values?
People have a surface where they accept the mainstream values. Underneath we have opposite values which surface from time to time, "monster of the id"
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What does Katz say about crime?
Postmodernist- Crime is seductive and people engage with it because it is exciting.
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What does Lyng say about crime?
Postmodernist - sees people driven by "edge-work". Attracted by flirting with danger
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is crime?

Back

When someone breaks a law

Card 3

Front

What did Lambrosso say about crime?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Gluech say about crime?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the XXY syndrome?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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