sociology - crime

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what is an example of historical deviance?
60 years ago it was considered deviant to be a single mother but now it not.
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what is an example of situational deviance?
to walk down a street naked is seen as deviant but to be naked on a nudist beach is not deviant.
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what the two agents of social control?
formal social control (police). Informal control (teachers, parents)
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what is the difference between formal and informal social control?
Formal is carried out by agents that only exist to control society, Informal is when control is not their primary function
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what are three Formal agents?
the goverment, police and the penal system (prison)
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what are 5 informal agents?
the family, education, mass media, the peer group, relgion
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what are the 4 functions of the penal system?
to prevent crime, to deter others from commiting crime, to punish, to keep the public safe
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what are 4 methods of punishment?
community service, death penalty, corporal punishment (whipping), prison sentencing, fines
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what are three ways of measuring crime?
offical statistics, self report surveys, victim surveys
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what are the problems with offical statistics?
the crime has to be reported, the crime has to be registered as a crime each police officer will do things differently - this effects the validity
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what does the 'darke figure' mean?
it refers to the crime that goes unrecorded
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what are the problems with victim surveys?
people may not co-operate, they may not tell the truth, unwilling to talk about crime (such as sexual assult), the process relies on memory which is unreliable
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why is self-report studies thought to be more valid than offical statistics?
because the confidentiality and anoymity is kept private so they are more likely to tell the truth.
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what are the problems with self-report studies?
people might not want to admit their crime, the truth may not be told, reports focus on smaller crimes, usally commitied by young people so mot representive
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why might crime be good for the community?
bring them together through neighbourhood whatch schemes and may benifit from the criminal working in the local area
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what has the fear of crime lead to?
people being fearful to leave their homes, homes having alarm systems, social control is now the norm.
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why is social control good? (CCTV, DNA testing and photo ID
it reduces crime
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what are the functionalist view on crime?
crime can be good for the community, it allows people to let of steam. it can set social boundraies - as when someone is punished others can see it is wrong
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what is the pattern in crime for class and crime?
the lower the class the higher the crime rate, or is this unfair treatment (marxist view)
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what is the pattern in crime for gender and crime?
men are more likely to commit crime than women. men might feel they have to live up being the breadwinner or to show their masculinity-feminist believe that this could lead to domestic abuse.
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what is the pattern in crime of age and crime? and why could it be inaccurate
young people commit more crime, parents heavily monitor teenagers, it may be crimes commited by older people are not reported, young people are more likely to commit petty crimes such as underaged drinking
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what is the pattern in crime for ethnicity and crime? and why?
Afro-caribbean people are more likely to be in prison, they commit more crimes, the criminal justice system is racist, they suffer from police targeting
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what are asian people seen as more law abiding?
greater ecomic success, stronger family and community ties providing effective social control, a religon that provides status
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what is an example of police racisum?
Stephen Lawrence in 1993 police did not fully investigate his death which was by a gang of white men who killed a black teen
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what are 6 reason why someone might commit a crime?
peer pressure, labelling, police targeting, discrimination, racism, alienation and SFP
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what is status frustration?
due to lack of education success and high paid jobs, the working class have a lower status, this could lead to frustration which might result in crime
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what is a structual explanation of crime?
crimes comitted by proletariat are punished more than white collar crime comited by bourgeosie (marxist view)
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Card 2

Front

what is an example of situational deviance?

Back

to walk down a street naked is seen as deviant but to be naked on a nudist beach is not deviant.

Card 3

Front

what the two agents of social control?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the difference between formal and informal social control?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are three Formal agents?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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