Sociology couples

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What are instrumental and expressive roles?
Parsons (1955) - instrumental: husband, success at work, breadwinner. expressive: wife, primary socialisation, emotional needs, home maker
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What does Parsons (1955) say division of labour is based upon?
biological differences - women naturally suited to nurture role
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Who discusses conjugal roles?
Bott 1957
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What are joint and segregated conjugal roles?
Joint: couple share tasks, eg housework, spend leisure time together, Segregated: couple have separate roles, man breadwinner, woman caregiver. Leisure activities are separate
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What did Young and Willmott's London families study find?
Found a pattern of segregated conjugal roles in WC extended families. Men; breadwinner, did little in home life, leisure time work mates at pub, women; housewife, responsible for housework, helped by female relatives, leisure time limited female kin
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What is the symmetrical family?
Young and Willmott (1973) family life improving for all members, joint conjugal roles, more equal and democratic. Roles aren't identical - more similar
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How are families becoming more symmetrical - give 3 examples
1. women now go out to work 2. men help with housework and childcare 3. couples spend leisure time together
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Where are symmetrical families more common?
In younger cuples, geograohically and socially isolated, more affluent (better off)
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What 4 social changes have helped the rise in symmetrical families?
1. changes in womens position 2. geographical mobility 3. new technology - labour saving devices 4. higher standards of living
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What did feminist Oakley (1974) find?
evidence of men 'helping' but no trend towards symmetry. Husbands more likely to share childcare as more pleasurable - then seen as the 'good father' taking away mothers rewards
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What does Boulton (1983) say to criticise the symmetrical family?
fewer than 20% of husbands had major role in childcare. Y&W exaggerate the contribution by looking at the tasks not the responsibilities
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What did Warde and Hetherington find about housework?
sex typing of domestic tasks still strong. Men would only do female tasks when their partner wasnt around to do it. Slight change in attitude of younger men
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What does Gershuny (1994) argue about division of labour?
women working full time is leading to more equal division of labour, women who work full time do less domestic work
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What does Sullivan (2000) say about division of labour?
from national data collected there is a trend towards women doing a smaller share of domestic work and men doing more. Increase in an equal division of labour, with men doing more traditionally female tasks
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What do feminists now carry?
A dual burden - domestic and paid work
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What support is there for Boulton's view on responsibility?
Ferri and Smith (1996) found fathers who took repsonsibility for childcare is fewer than 4% of families
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What is emotion work? (Hochschild 2013)
women are responsible for managing the feelings and emotions of family members, handle jealousies between siblings, whilst exercising control over their own emotions
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What do Duncombe and Marsden argue women perform?
Triple shift - housework, paid work, emotion work
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What does Southerton argue?
Mothers are responsible for 'quality time' - which has becom more difficult due to social changes such as flexible working patterns and womens leisure time is more interupted - unequal experiences of leisure time
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What are the 2 explanations for gender divison of labour?
Crompton and Lyonette (2008) - 1. cultural explanation - determined by patriarchal norms 2. material explanation - women earn less so economically rational for women to do housework while men work more
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What evidence is there for the cultural explanation of inequality?
Dunne (1999) lesbian couples had more symmetrical relationships because of the abense of 'gender scripts'
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What evidence is there for the material explanation of inquality?
Ramos (2003) when a woman is the full time breadwinner and the man is unemployed the man does as much domestic labour as she does
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What 3 things do Barrett and McIntosh (1991) say about resources and decisions?
1. men gain more fro womens domestic work than they give back in financial support. 2. financial support given to wives is unpredictable + 'strings attached' 3. men make decisions on spending on important items
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What did Kempson (1994) find amoung low income families?
women denied their own needs eg. skip meals, in order to make ends meet. Woman has no ntitlement to a share of household resources
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What are Pahl and Vogler (1993) two types of control over income?
1. the allowance system 2. pooling
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What is pooling?
both partners have access to income and joint responsibility for expenditure eg. joint bank account
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Why is pooling not neccessarily equal?
The pooled income is controlled by the husband, giving them more power in major finacial decisions.
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What did Edgell find in his study of professional couples?
very important decision made by husband or joint, but he has final say. important decisions made jointly or by wife. less important decisionsmade by wife. This is because the man earns more
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What does Nyman (2003) say about the meaning of money?
Money has no automatuc, fixed or natural meaning - different couples define it differently
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What did Smart (2007) find about same sex couples view on money?
same sex couples give a different meaning to the control of money. attached no importance to who cotrolled the money
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What does domestic abuse include?
psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional
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What 2 reasons are there that domestic cause is psychological rather than social?
1. far too widespread to be the work of a few distured individuals 2. domestic abuse doesnt occur randomly.
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What are the 4 types of intimate abuse?
1. partner abuse 2. family abuse 3. sexual assult 4. stalking
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Whats the problem with only knowing the number of victims?
Don't know anything about the frequency, severity or effects of the abuse
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What are the 2 reasons official statistics understate the true extent of the problem of DV?
1. victims unwilling to report 2. police are reluctant to investigate
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What 3 assuptions do the police make about family life?
1. it is a private sphere 2. family is a good friend, neglect the darker side 3. free agents - woman is free to leave
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What are the 2 types of explanation of DV?
1.The radical feminist explanation 2.the materialist explanation
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What does Parsons (1955) say division of labour is based upon?


biological differences - women naturally suited to nurture role

Card 3


Who discusses conjugal roles?


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Card 4


What are joint and segregated conjugal roles?


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Card 5


What did Young and Willmott's London families study find?


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