Sociology - Class Differences in Achievement (Internal)

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What is meant by labelling?
Where teachers attach meanings/definitions to students to make sense of them.
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What did Becker suggest about labelling?
Teachers label m/c students as 'ideal students' and prefer to teach them rather than w/c students.
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What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
The prediction made about a student that comes true simply because it has been made.
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What do sociologists believe about the self-fulfilling prophecy?
Teachers create self-fulfilling prophecies through labels (m/c = bright, w/c = negative).
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What is streaming?
An extreme form of labelling by teachers putting pupils into classes or groups (streams).
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What did Lacey say about streaming?
Streaming = differentiation - the way of separating students, creating self-fulfilling prophecies.
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Briefly describe the pro-school & anti-school subcultures.
Pro-school = higher streams, work hard, regular attendance, enthusiastic about education; Anti-school = lower streams, reject school's values, flout school rules, disrespect teachers, truant.
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What is meant by the status hierarchy?
The hierarchy pupils create: gain status from peers by rejecting school's values & breaking rules.
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What is habitus?
A social class's ways of thinking, being & acting (m/c preferred to w/c in education).
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Briefly describe symbolic violence & symbolic capital?
Symbolic violence = school devaluing w/c habitus - judging their clothing, accents & interests = denies them symbolic capital (recognition & status).
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What are 'Nike' identities?
Pupils create alternate class identities & gain symbolic capital from peers through consuming branded goods (leads to conflict with m/c).
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What is meant by the term 'losing yourself' in education?
Being inauthentic & changing how you present yourself to fit in.
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How have educational policies impacted internal factors in achievement?
Marketisation policies have increased streaming in schools.
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Card 2

Front

What did Becker suggest about labelling?

Back

Teachers label m/c students as 'ideal students' and prefer to teach them rather than w/c students.

Card 3

Front

What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do sociologists believe about the self-fulfilling prophecy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is streaming?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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