Sociology - Class Differences in Achievement (External)

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What is cultural deprivation?
Working class lack the 'cultural equipment' (language, self-discipline & reasoning skills).
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What is the restricted code?
Used by the w/c; Limited vocabulary; Simple sentences; Predictable speech; Descriptive; Speaker assumes reader shares experiences.
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What is the elaborated code?
Used by the m/c; Wide vocabulary; Complex sentences; Varied speech; Context-free; Spells out meaning explicitly.
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What is parents' education?
Parenting style (discipline & expectations); Parents' educational behaviours (more aware of progress); Use of income (incomes spent for educational success); Class, income & parental education (m/c better educated than w/c).
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What is the working class subculture?
Fatalism (belief in fate); Collectivism (value being part of a group); Immediate Gratification (seeking pleasure rather than making sacrifices); Present-time Orientation (present > future).
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Give an example of compensatory education.
Operation Head Start - pre-school education in poorer areas (planned enrichment).
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Explain one criticism of cultural deprivation.
Keddie - C/D is a myth & a victim-blaming explanation, pupils not culturally deprived, but culturally different.
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What is material deprivation?
Underachievement is due to poverty (housing; diet; financial support; fear of debt).
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How does poor housing affect underachievement?
Overcrowding/cold rooms = no space to study; Temporary accommodation = frequent changes of school & illness.
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How does poor diet affect underachievement?
Howard - Illness = absences from school & lack of concentration due to hunger.
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How does a lack of financial support affect underachievement?
Tanner et al. - cost of items is a heavy burden = hand-me-downs leads to isolation & bullying.
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How does the fear of debt affect underachievement?
Callender & Jackson - w/c more debt adverse = discouraged from higher education & less likely to receive financial support.
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What is the cultural capital?
The knowledge, language, values, tastes & abilities required for educational success.
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What is the economic capital?
Having the money to afford houses in areas with good schools & resources for success.
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What is the educational capital?
The resources & additional support for education (e.g. private schooling, extra tuition).
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What did Sullivan find about cultural capital?
Students who read more complex fiction & watched serious documentaries had a greater cultural capital & achieved more successfully; But, greater resources & aspirations of m/c families still explain difference in achievement.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the restricted code?

Back

Used by the w/c; Limited vocabulary; Simple sentences; Predictable speech; Descriptive; Speaker assumes reader shares experiences.

Card 3

Front

What is the elaborated code?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is parents' education?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the working class subculture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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