Sociology - Beliefs in society (religion as a force of social change)

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What effect does globalisation have on religion?
May see the growth of fundamentalism
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What are the key features of fundamentalism?
1. Existence if an authoritative sacred text 2. An "us" and "them" mentality encourages separatism 3. Aggressive reactions to threats 4. Tech used to spread ideas and achieve aims
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Why does Bruce believe there is fundamentalism in the west?
Often due to change in society, e.g New Christian Right don't like that abortion is accepted.
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Why does Bruce believe there is fundamentalism in the third world?
A reaction to changes being thrust upon a society from the outside. Capitalist influences from the west
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What is secular fundamentalism?
Someone who is absolutely certain in their ideas. Davies suggests that fundamentalists are threatened by modernity. Giddens says that globalisation has increased choice and ideas threatening traditional views.
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What are the feminist views on the conservative role of religion?
Religion helps maintain patriarchy e.g. In RC church women can't be priests, however, women have more opportunity in religion (CofE)
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How is religion an interior for social change?
Opposing the view that religion is a conservative force, is the idea that religion can bring about social change, supported by neo-marxists and Weber
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What id Huntingdon (1993) argue?
Argues people see themselves as belonging to a civilisation that are linked to reilgion
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What is meant by a conservative force?
Religion maintains the states quo and prevents social change
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What is a functionalist view on the conservation role of religion?
Religion is functional as it helps maintain order by reinforcing the collective conscience
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What is the Marxist view on the conservative role of religion?
Pacifies the proletariat, preventing rebellion. Legitimises inequalities
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What are Stark & Bainbridge's view on religion?
Postmodernists. Believe religion goes in cycle, and criticise secularisation as it is eurocentric, fails to explain continued popularity of religion, assumes we all were once all religious.
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What are the 2 assumptions religious market theory is based on?
1. People are naturally religious 2. Human nature seeks rewards and avoids costs
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What is the religious competition in the market?
Stark and Bainbridge say that religion sell their goods in a marketplace.
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How does Bruce and the secularisation thesis see the marketplace theory as a way of secularisation becoming more prominent?
The "erosion of absolutism"
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How does Haddan and &Shupe (1988) support the market place theory?
Growth of televangelism in USA shows religiosity is supplied.
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What is meant by religiosity?
the importance of religion in someone's life, or in the lives of people living in a society - opposite to secularisation
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What are Birely's 4 factors on religiosity?
1. Belief 2. Affiliation 3. Practice 4. Membership
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What did Bruce say about religiosity?
2011 - secularisation is happening in 3 ways: 1. declining church attendance 2. secularisation from within 3. religious diversity
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What did Davie say about religiosity?
1994 - suggests the secularisation theists may be exaggerated as people chose to believe without belonging
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What Stark and Bainbridge say about religiosity?
1985 - critical of the idea of definitive secularisation as they suggest it comes and goes in cycles
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What did Heelas et al say about religiosity?
2004 - researched a UK town to measure religiosity, looked at "congregational domains" and "hostilic milieu"
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According to Wilson, how does the definition of religion affect the way secularisation is seen?
Those who define in substantive terms are more likely to argue that religion is declining as other religions are more widely accepted. Those who use functionalist terms more likely to disagree with this
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Why according to Hamilton, is the notion of an "age of faith" an illusion?
Most of the information is focused on behaviour of the elite. Less information about ordinary people, past may not have been more or less spiritual then modern day.
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What is the significance of the changing age profile for the future of religion in Britain?
Decline in young members of the congragation mean that the congregation is getting continuously older and will eventually die out
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What according to Wilson is the significance of rationalisation and disengagement?
Argued that secularisation is due to rationalisation and disengagement. People no longer turn to supernatural for answers, church and state are now separate.
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What is statistical evidence for secularisation?
Decline in membership and attendance of "traditional" churches. Attendance in Britain in 1950 was 50% of adult population
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What is the desacrilisation of religion?
Sunday no longer "day of rest" due to economic / consumer demands suspending those of the church
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What is religious pluralism?
Demonstrates that religious beliefs are alive and well. They have to work even harder in the postmodern age of shopping t the religious pick n mix counter
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What is the Kendall project?
2004 - "door to door
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Reasons for secularisation?
1. enlightenment 2. disenchantment with religion 3. Growth of science and technology 4. religious diversity and plurality 5. changes in society
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What are the consequences of secularisation?
1. other initiatives and beliefs take over 2. religion is less public on the whole
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How much has secularisation increased by?
10% more people have no religion
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What are some of the key beliefs of Calvinism?
Predestination, Asceticism, Vocation
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According to Weber what were some of the similarities between these beliefs and the spirit of capitalism?
Calvinists were working long hours and not using the money to buy luxuries, ultimately spent their money on expanding companies
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What does Weber mean by "this worldly"?
Not focused on a supernatural being such as God
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What does Bruce say about religion as a "dual character"
Religion can be a force for social change or a conservative force?
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What does Bloch say about religion?
Inhabits change but can inspire protest
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What does Manduro say about religion?
Uses liberation theology to suggest religion not always acting in interests of power
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What does Gramsci ay about religion?
Religion part of hedgemony but can be overturned by counter hegemony
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How does a religions beliefs affect whether it is a force of social change or conservative force?
Emphasises strong moral codes are not more likely to produce members who are critical of social injustice
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How does a religions culture affect whether it is a force of social change or conservative force?
Where religion is central to a society's culture, then any religion or religious leader wishing to change society is likely to use religion
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How does a religions social location affect whether it is a force of social change or conservative force?
Where religion plays a major role in political and economic life there is potential for it to influence social change
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Card 2

Front

What are the key features of fundamentalism?

Back

1. Existence if an authoritative sacred text 2. An "us" and "them" mentality encourages separatism 3. Aggressive reactions to threats 4. Tech used to spread ideas and achieve aims

Card 3

Front

Why does Bruce believe there is fundamentalism in the west?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why does Bruce believe there is fundamentalism in the third world?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is secular fundamentalism?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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