Sociology- BASICS

self-completion questionnaire
respondents complete the questionnaire themselves and then return it to the researcher
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interview questionnaires
questions ae read out t the respondent by the researcher, who then records the respondents answers
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closed questions
respondents are presented with either a list of options or a two-way choice and have to select the response with which they most agree (yes/no)
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open questions
respondents are free to answer the question in anyway they like; there are no present opinions
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trends
patterns of behaviour or attitudes seen in evidence
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standardised questions
all respondents are asked the same questions in the same order, allowing for comparisons to be made
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low-response rate
not everyone that you want to participate in your research may do so, meaning that your respondents may no longer be typical of the population under study
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statistics
data presented in a numerical form as a percentage
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quantitative data
numerical data, often presented as statistics
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qualitative data
in-depth data usually presented in written form
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structured interview
a set of standardised present questions is read out to the respondent by the researcher
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unstructured interview
a very flexible interview, like a conversation (informal)
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semi-structured interview
somewhere in-between structured and unstructured interview
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focus group
several respondents are interviewed at once and are allowed to discuss the questions being asked of them
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research population
the group(s) of people relevant to the study being completed
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interviewer bias
where the researcher influences the answers the respondent gives
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social desirability
where the respondent gives the kind of answer that they think the researcher would want to hear
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non-participant observation
where a researcher watches a group without getting involved in what they're doing
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participant observation
where the researcher joins the group being studied and acts as they do whilst completing the observation
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covert observation
where the researcher doesn't let the group being studied know that they're being observed
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overt observation
where the researcher tells the group that they're being observed. (doesn't try hide their presence from the group)
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objectivity
studying topics and people with an open mind and not allowing your own views and options to influence the findings.
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observer effect
when the presence of an observer affects the actions of the group under study, preventing the observer from seeing natural behaviour
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ethics
ideas about what is morally right and morally wrong
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operationalise
to define what is meant by any terms used for categorisation
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bias
the subject is presented in a one-sided way which favours one point more than others
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research device
the research method that you will use for your investigation, such as a questionnaire or interview questions
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cross-sectional
eg when a sample is made up of a range of different people to best represent the research population
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generalisations
results from a study can be applied to the whole research population
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sample
a small group of people, usually cross-sectional,on whom research will be carried out
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sampling frame
the source from which a sample is drawn
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feminist
someone who thinks that women are disadvantaged in society and wants to make them equal with men
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random sample
the sample group is chosen completely at random
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representative
when data can be said to accurately represent the research population in terms of, for example, gender and age composition
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stratified sample
the research group is divided up into relevant groups such as gender and age and a random sample is taken from each of these groups to generate more representative data
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systematic sample
selecting every nth name from the sampling frame, therefore not random at all
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snowball sample
another non-random sample where the researcher makes contact with one relevant respondent and then ask them to put you into contact with further respondents. often used when studying a topic with no sampling frame, for example gang members
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triangulation
using more than one research method or researcher in order to complete the investigation
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pilot study
a small-scale study completed before a piece of research to identify any possible problems
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case study
a detailed and in-depth study of one particular group or situation
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longitudinal study
a study completed over a long period of time
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primary data
information that researchers have gathered themselves
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secondary data
information that has been collected by somebody else and then used by the researcher
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reliability
means that findings can be checked by another researcher. if another researcher can do the research in the same way and get the same results, then the research is reliable
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validity
the truthfulness and accuracy of the data; the more accurate something is, the more valid it is
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

questions ae read out t the respondent by the researcher, who then records the respondents answers

Back

interview questionnaires

Card 3

Front

respondents are presented with either a list of options or a two-way choice and have to select the response with which they most agree (yes/no)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

respondents are free to answer the question in anyway they like; there are no present opinions

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

patterns of behaviour or attitudes seen in evidence

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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