Sociology AS Level Flashcards

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Explain the difference between labelling and the self-fulfilling prophecy.
Labelling is attaching a meaning or definition to someone. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it having been made.
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Explain the difference between differentiation and polarisation.
Differentiation is the process of teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their ability, attitude and/or behaviour. Polarisation is the process of pupils responding to differentiation by moving towards one of two opposite ‘poles’
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Identify two characteristics of a pro-school subculture.
Any two of the following: pro-school cultures tend to form in high streams; they are largely middle-class; they share the values of the school; they gain their status through academic success.
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Suggest one reason why anti-school subcultures develop.
pupils placed in low streams suffer a loss of self-esteem; the label of failure pushes pupils to search for alternative ways of gaining status by forming an anti-school subculture.
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State two criticisms of labelling theory.
Firstly, determinism: it assumes that pupils who are labelled have no choice but to fulfil the prophecy and will inevitably fail. Secondly, it ignores the wider structures of power within which labelling takes place.
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Explain what is meant by 'habitus'.
Habitus refers to the dispositions or learned and taken-for-granted ways of thinking, being and acting that are shared by a particular social class.
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Explain what is meant by 'symbolic capital'.
Symbolic capital refers to status and recognition. A person with symbolic capital is deemed by others (usually, their peers) to have worth or value.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain the difference between differentiation and polarisation.

Back

Differentiation is the process of teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their ability, attitude and/or behaviour. Polarisation is the process of pupils responding to differentiation by moving towards one of two opposite ‘poles’

Card 3

Front

Identify two characteristics of a pro-school subculture.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Suggest one reason why anti-school subcultures develop.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

State two criticisms of labelling theory.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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