sociology

Quantitative data
Are anything that can be expressed in statistical or number form or can be measured in some way, such as age, qualification, income or periods of ill health.
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Qualitative data
Are concerned with feelings and meaning people associate with and the interpretations they give to, some event, and to get at the way they really see things.
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reliability
Refers to wherther another researcher, if repeating research using the same method for same research on the same or similar group would achieve the same result.
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Validity
Is concerned with notions of truth: how far the finding of the research provide true, genuine pr authentic picture of what is been studied
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Primary data
Are those which collected by sociologists themselves, they only exist because sociologists themselves has collected them.
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Examples of practical issues
Time, funding, getting in and out(access)
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Examples of ethical issues
Consent, confidentiality, psychological harm
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Examples of theoretical issues
reliabilty, positism, validity
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Bias
A predjudice or disortion
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Closed question
A question with a limted number of answers to choose from
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Hawthorne effect
Where the presence of researchers affects behaviour
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Hypothesis
An idea which a researcher guesses might be true, but has not yet been tested against the evidence.
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Interview
asking questions directly, face to face or by telephone
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Interpretivist
A sociologist who believes the best way to understand society is doing micro small scale studies to understand motives and meaning behind how individuals and groups act in society. They use qualitative research methods such as unstructed interviews.
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interviewer bias
The answers given in an interview being influenced or disorted in some way by the presence of the interviewer.
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Participant observation
joining in activites of a groupin order to study it.
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positivist
A sociologist who believes that the best way to understand society is through quantative research methods such as surveys, official statistics etc
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quota sample
A sample not chosen from a sampling frame
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response rate
the percentage of a sample that provide data
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secondary data
data that laready exists
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structured interview
The interviewer reads out questions and records the answers
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examples of secondary data
Diaries, tv/radios, paintings, biographies
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examples of primary data
questionaires, large scales and surveys
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rapport
The interviewer builds up trust and therfore they are more likely to be honest which means higher in validity
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non participant observation
watches from distance and is not directly involved with the participants
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participant observation
researcher interacts with the study group being observed
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covert
subjects do not know they are being studied
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overt
subjects are aware that they are being studied
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advantages of internet questionaires
easier for people to do it at home, quicker and easier
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what are the different types of questionaires
open,closed,internet, self completion
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advantages of open questionaires
longer time to answer, more detail(higher in validity)
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disadvantages of open questionaires
harder to analyse, unrepresentative
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advantages of closed questionaires
easier to analyse, quick to complete, can analyse the patterns and trends, larger sample- therefore higher response rate
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diadvantages of closed questionaires
limted answers- easier to answer, people might get bored and circle any answers, doesnt tell you the reason why
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disadvantages of internet questionaires
might not answer properly, might get a low response rate, older people dont usually use the internet, might get a unrepresentative sample
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advantages of self completion questionaires
easier and quicker, people are more honest- doing it independently
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disadvantages of self completion questionaires
poor response rate, interprevit in a different way, might not understand it
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how to encourage people to do questionaires
use coloured ink , shorter questionaires, if there was a finacial offer
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Are concerned with feelings and meaning people associate with and the interpretations they give to, some event, and to get at the way they really see things.

Back

Qualitative data

Card 3

Front

Refers to wherther another researcher, if repeating research using the same method for same research on the same or similar group would achieve the same result.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Is concerned with notions of truth: how far the finding of the research provide true, genuine pr authentic picture of what is been studied

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Are those which collected by sociologists themselves, they only exist because sociologists themselves has collected them.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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