Sociology

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What is the Sociological approach to studying society?
The Sociological approach to this is that the way of understanding human society that focuses on social structures
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What is the Psychological approach?
The Psychological approach is the way of understanding human behavior by looking at individual make-up (brain, thinking patterns, personality etc.)
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What is the Biological approach?
The Biological approach is the way of understanding humans by looking at their biological make-up (genes, chromosomes, hormones etc.)
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What is Power?
Power is Where a person or group is able to direct the behaviour of another person or group. This can be through direct exercise of power (force, dominance, authority) or indirectly (coercion, persuasion, expertise).
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What is Social Control?
Social Control is Ways of ensuring people behave in socially acceptable ways, such as socialisation, laws, exercise of power etc
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What is Social structure?
Social structure is Structures organised around people, such as the family, schools, government, religion etc
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What is Culture?
Culture is Where a group of people share common norms, values and beliefs.
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What is Sub-culture?
Sub-culture is A smaller group of people who share norms, values and beliefs that are different from the main culture.
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What is Socialization?
Socialization is The process of learning norms, values and beliefs. This can be primary or secondary.
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Institution of socialisation
Institution of socialisation is The different social structures that are involved in socialising members of society, such as the family, education system, mass media, religion etc.
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What is Ethnicity?
Ethnicity is A term that refers to differences in culture but is not based on biology – this is about social differences.
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What is Gender?
A term referring to the social categories of masculine and feminine, which are usually related to the biological categories of male and female due to stereotyping and gender role socialisation.
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What are the different types of sampling methods?
The different types of sampling methods are Stratified Sampling, Random Sampling, Snowball Sampling and many more.
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What is Stratified Sampling and the advantages and disadvantages?
Stratified Sampling is that this involves picking people from different groups within the population (eg. different genders, ethnicity, ages, social classes). The advantages of this sample will be representative and give the point of view.
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What is the disadvantage of Stratified Sampling?
A disadvantage of stratified sampling is that It is more time-consuming to select the sample than other sampling methods.
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What is Random sampling?
Random sampling is the sample is selected by picking names out of a hat (or with a computer) – like the National Lottery balls
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What is the advantage and disadvantage of Random sampling?
The advantage of random sampling is that there is no researcher bias in who is selected and everyone stands an equal chance of being selected. It is also quick and easy to use. The disadvantage is they all may be all the same people: the same males
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What is Snowball Sampling?
Snowball sampling is the researcher selects one person, then asks them to put them in touch with other people, etc.
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What are the advantage and disadvantages of snowball sampling?
The advantage is that it is useful for researching hard to contact groups (eg. gangs). The disadvantage is very time-consuming, so only small samples are used and the results are not generalisable.
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What is Ethics?
Ethics is when researchers follow ethical guidelines, which are rules about how they treat their participants. These are set out by the British Sociological Association.
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What are the two types of research methods?
The two types of research method is Secondary and Primary.
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What is primary research method?
Primary research method is when researchers collect the data themselves.
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What is Secondary research method?
Secondary research method is when researchers use data collected by somebody else.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of Primary research?
Advantage of primary research is that the information is ‘firsthand’ so is more likely to be accurate. The disadvantage is conducting research can be very time consuming and expensive. It is difficult to collect a lot of information.
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What is the advantage and disadvantages of Secondary data/ research?
Advantage of secondary research is that it is easy to collect a lot of data quickly and cheaply. The disadvantage is that the information is more likely to be biased.
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Where can you use primary research method?
We could use primary research method in Questionnaires, Interviews,Observation.
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What is the advantages and disadvantage of Questionnaires?
Advantage is that they are quick to distribute, so it is possible to send them to lots of people (representative and reliable). Disadvantages is people also might not understand the questions (less valid)
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What is the advantages and disadvantages of Formal Structured Interviews?
Advantage is that all participants are asked exactly the same questions (reliable). The disadvantages is that the respondent might not give honest answers due to the influence of the researcher.
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What is the advantages of Informal (Unstructured) Interviews?
Advantage is that participants can talk about what is important to them (valid). The disadvantage is that each interview is different so it is hard to compare the data. Less reliable.
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What is the advantage and disadvantage of Participant Observation?
Advantage is that the researcher can directly watch how participants behave. The disadvantage is that if participants know they are being observed, then they will not act naturally which means the data will be less valid.
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What is the advantage and disadvantage of Direct (Non-participant) Observations?
Advantage is that the researcher can directly watch how participants behave (valid). Disadvantage is the researcher can not see the world from the participants’ point of view. Less valid.
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What are the two types of observation?
Overt- The participants know they are being observed. Covert- The researcher goes undercover, so the participants do not know they are being observed.
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Where can you obtain Secondary research?
We could use secondary research method Statistics, Media reports, blogs, forums, Letters, emails, profile pages and Research Studies.
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What is the advantage and disadvantage of Official Statistics?
Advantage is that The data is usually based on the whole population (representative). Disadvantage is that the data may be politically biased. Changes of criminal data.
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What is the advantage and disadvantage of Media Reports?
Advantage is that the data is easy to access. Disadvantage is that the information is biased – newspapers and magazines have their own opinions, but also write sensational stories to sell papers.
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What is the advantage and disadvantage of Letters?
Advantage is that Letters provide information we may not be able to find any other way. Disadvantage is that The information is biased – letters are based entirely on personal experiences and opinions.
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What is the advantage and disadvantage of Research Studies?
Advantage is that Studies are conducted properly, using carefully planned research methods (valid and reliable). Disadvantage is The original aim of the study may be different to ours, so not all information may be relevant.
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Card 2

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What is the Psychological approach?

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The Psychological approach is the way of understanding human behavior by looking at individual make-up (brain, thinking patterns, personality etc.)

Card 3

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What is the Biological approach?

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Card 4

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What is Power?

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Card 5

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What is Social Control?

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