Sociologists - Family

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  • Created by: Oohla
  • Created on: 16-03-14 18:15
George Murdock 1949
Nuclear Family. Sample of 250 societies. Concluded nuclear family is universal/present everywhere.
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Mitchell and Goody 1997
Note rapid change in the 1960's of declining stigma around divorce.
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Chester
The neo-conventional family - dual-earner family, no other major change. Argues people still aspire nuclear family (life cycle).
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The Rapoports (Postmod)
Family Diversity important - greater freedom of choice. E.g - cultural diversity, social-class diversity, organisational diversity.
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Giddens (Postmod)
Family and marriage transformed by choice and equality. Due to contraception and women's independence.
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Beck 1995
Risk society - tradition less influence, contrasts with earlier times when roles were fixed. (expectation to marry)
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Weeks 2000
Shift in attitudes since 1950s - growing acceptance of sexual and family diversity. Family patterns continue to be fairly traditional (Aspire/In nuclear 1 point).
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N.R.Tranter 1996
1850-1870: decline in death rate due to fall in infectious diseases - changed to heart diseases (obesity desk jobs fastfood)
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Thomas McKeown 1972
Improved nutrition reduced up to half of death rates HOWEVER measles deaths rose.
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Murdock's family four basic functions
Sexual, reproductive, economic and education (socialisation).
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Parsons (Functionalist)
Two basic types of society: tradional pre-industrial (extended) and modern industrial (nuclear). Family fits society it's in.
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Parsons' industrial (isolated nuclear) family
Two needs: geographically mobile, achieve status through own merit - family no longer needed for this.
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Peter Laslett 1972 (against Parsons)
Study of English households 1564-1821 found they were almost always nuclear - didn't develop alongside industrialisation
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Marxism and the family
Key factor - Mode of production changes so does family. Devoloped with emergence of private property, performs ideological functions for capitalism and generate profits fro capitalist societies (explain).
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Ansley 1972 - Marxist Feminist
Women absorb anger aimed at capitalism - wives are 'takers of s**t' who soak up husband's frustration at work.
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Anne Oakley 1974 - Feminist
Power in family - Found only 15% of husbands had high participation in housework. No evidence towards equality (against Young + Willmott)
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Willmott and Young 1973 - Functionalists
Family gradually becoming equal and democratic - joint conjugal roles. Study showed symmetrical family = geographically isolated.
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Duncombe and Marsdsen 1993 (Emotion work)
Interviewed 40 white couples married 15 years : women experience 'emotional loneliness' and 'triple shift'.
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Anthony Giddens 1992
women increasingly seeking 'haven in a heartless world' through greater emotional and sexual openness.
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Edgell's study 'Middle Class Couples' 1980
sample of 38 professional couples - women control decision making in food, children, interior. (unimportant) Men - house, cars = expensive, important.
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Dobash and Dobash 1979
Argues marriage legitimates violence against women - men have authority and power over women and dependency on wives. Until end of 18th century husbands could beat wives.
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Richard Wilkinson 1996 Marxist
Stress major factor of domestic abuse. Bourgeoisie exerting power on working class = stress = lash out on wife
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Philippe Aries 1960
Middle ages - childhood did not exist (same legal right, duties). Evidence for paintings. HOWEVER they would be middle-class (afford painting).
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Lloyd de Mause 1974
March of progress view - children are now in much better position than past. "The history of childhood is a nightmare".
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Neil Postman 1994
Toxic Childhood - childhood now disappearing at dazzling rate - childhood seperate when literacy improved 19th century, now tele/internet blurs distinction between adult + child - exposed to 'taboo' things.
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Sue Palmer 2006
trend to 'toxic childhood' : unhealthy food, lack of play in natural surroundings, poor sleep patterns(phones), little interaction with family(internet), decline in emotional security
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Note rapid change in the 1960's of declining stigma around divorce.

Back

Mitchell and Goody 1997

Card 3

Front

The neo-conventional family - dual-earner family, no other major change. Argues people still aspire nuclear family (life cycle).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Family Diversity important - greater freedom of choice. E.g - cultural diversity, social-class diversity, organisational diversity.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Family and marriage transformed by choice and equality. Due to contraception and women's independence.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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