Sociologists

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  • Created on: 02-04-15 18:51
Parsons [1955]
Husbands role - Instrumental role, success at work to provide for family. Wife's role - expressive role, meeting family's emotional needs.
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Bott [1957]
Two conjugal roles: Segregated conjugal roles - men and women have specific roles. Joint conjugal roles - sharing the roles equally between them.
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Young & Willmott [1973]
Symmetrical family - gradually improving of family life and becoming more equal with joint roles and rise of symmetrical family
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Oakley
Men and women remain unequal within the family and women still do most of the housework
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Pahl & Vogler [1993]
Two types of control over family income: Pooling - both partners have access to income & joint responsibilty for expenditure. Allowance System -men give their wives an allowance. Pooling is on the increase according to Pahl&Vogler
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Edgell [1980]
Studied professional couples. Very important decisions were made by husband or jointly, but husband had final say. Important decisions were taken jointly, but rarely by woman alone. Less important decisions were taken by the wife.
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Hardill [1997]
Studied 30 dual career couples - imporatnt decisions were either taken by the man alone or jointly. The man's career took priority over the woman's.
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Gershuny
Found that wives did 82-83% of housework. Those who worked full time did 73% and couples whose parents shared roles equally were more likely to themselves.
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Graham [1984]
Over half living on benefits after splitting with husband said they were better off and found it a more reliable source of income.
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Kempson [1994]
Women in low income families often denied their own needs to make ends meet.
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Barrett & McIntosh [1991]
Men gain far more from women's domestic support than they give in financial support. Financial support often comes with strings attached
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Dobash & Dobash
Married couple - Interviewd female victims of domestic violence and found most didn't report it through fear. Majority were assaulted in the home, and most experience at least two attacks per week. 80% on a Friday and Saturday night.
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Wilkinson
He sees domestic violence as result of stress on family members caused by social inequality
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Pilcher [1995]
Points out that childhood is seen as a distinct life stage and children occupy a different status from adults.
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Benedict
Argues that children in non industrial societies are treated dfferently, such as responsibility, value and sexual behaviour.
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Aries [1973]
Argues that in the middle ages children were viewed as adults from the age of five and therefore this idea of childhood did not exist, as they had economic and sexual roles to play.
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Brigit and Peter Berget [1973]
'Since the decline of the infant mortality rate, children have become ever present in the household. This has changed their role considerably from making a financial contribution to te family members for first 16 years.'
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Aries & Shorter
The March of Progress view - argue that over past few centuries childhood is improving and the position of children in western societies, with better care, protection, education, health and rights.
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Postman
Argues that childhood is disappearing, as they given same rights as adults, and the growing similarity between adults and children's clothes, disappearance of children's games and more commiting 'adult' crimes such as murder.
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Murdock [1949]
Functionalist - argues family provides four main functions for society. Stable satifaction of the sex drive, Reproduction of the next generation, Socialisation of the young, Meeting its members economic needs.
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Parsons [1950's]
Warm bath theory - compared family to a warm bath as you can sink into it after a hard days work.
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Parsons [1950's]
Functional-fit - two basic types of society - modern industrial and traditional pre-industrial. He argues the nuclear family fits the needs of industrial society and is most dominant in society.
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Engels
Monogamy became essential - Inheritance of property. Men had to be certain on the paternity of their children in order to ensure their legitimate heirs inherited from them. Monogomous nuclear family represented 'world historic defeat of female sex.'
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Zaretsky [1976]
family also provides a haven from the harsh world of capitalism, although it is an illusion and is based upon the domestic servitude of women.
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Somerville [2000]
Women's oppression is being gradually overcome, because of chnaging attitudes,and law changes. Moving towards greater equality, but full equality is yet to gained.
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Beck [1992]
argues a new type of family has replaced the traditional nuclear family, the 'negotiated famiy.' Roles are more fluid as there are no set roles for certain genders and roles are negotiated.
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Stacey
argues that economic, technological and social changes have enabled women to free themselves from the traditional nuclear family.
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Hareven [1978]
uses concept of the life course to argue that family diversity is the result of the freedom of choice individuals have about how to change thier living arrangements over the span of their lives.
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Giddens
argues that in recent decades the family and marriage have been transformed by greater choice and a more equal relationship between man and woman.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Two conjugal roles: Segregated conjugal roles - men and women have specific roles. Joint conjugal roles - sharing the roles equally between them.

Back

Bott [1957]

Card 3

Front

Symmetrical family - gradually improving of family life and becoming more equal with joint roles and rise of symmetrical family

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Men and women remain unequal within the family and women still do most of the housework

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Two types of control over family income: Pooling - both partners have access to income & joint responsibilty for expenditure. Allowance System -men give their wives an allowance. Pooling is on the increase according to Pahl&Vogler

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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