Sociologists for crime and deviance

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Durkheim - Functionalist views of crime
Crime is an inevitable part of society. Too much crime tells the government they're not controlling enough, and too little crime tells them that they're too controlling. Crime is a form of boundary maintenance and adaptation and change.
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Cohen - Functionalist view of Crime
Crime acts as a warning that society isn't functioning as it should.
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Erikson - Functionalist view of crime
Social control agencies function to sustain a constant amount of crime so that society can properly function.
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Davis - Functionalist view of crime - Support
Prostitution is a safety valve for male sexual frustration that would threaten the nuclear family.
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Polsky - Functionalist view of crime - Support
Pornography is a safety channel away from adultery that would threaten the nuclear family.
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Merton - Strain Theory
Deviance is strain between goals, structure of society and a persons means to fulfill goals. Conformity, Innovation, Ritualism, Retreatism and Rebellion.
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Cohen - Status Frustration
Alternative status hierarchy will develop when a person doesn't have the legitimate means to achieve goals.
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Cloward and Ohlin - Deviant subcultures
Criminal subculture occours with adult criminals and focuses on utilitarian crime. Conflict occours with high pop. turnover and centers arround violence. Retreatist occours when theres no legitimate or illegitimate means, usually drug use.
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Miller - Deviant subcultures - criticism
Lower classes don't want to achieve Middle class goals, but their own.
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Becker - Labeling
Groups are labelled as outsiders usually by social control agencies such as the police. e.g Black Muggers
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Cicourel - Labeling
Typflications of typical delinquents more likely to be changed. e.g WC and EM juveniles are more likely to be changed than a MC juvenile.
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Lamert - Labeling
Deviants fulfill the label attached to them, this is a self-fulfilling prophecy.
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Young - Labeling
Hippie marijuana users were prosecuted as junkies and developed their own deviant subculture.
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Braithwate - Labeling
Degenerative shaming is the crime and the criminal are bad. In regenerative shamming the act is labeled, not the person.
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Cohen - Mods and Rockers
Media exaggeration and distortion led to a moral panic. They were labeled as folk devils which marginalized them further, resulting in more deviance than before the label - deviance amplification spiral.
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Taylor, Walton and Young - Neo-marxists
Capitalism is based on exploitation and inequality. A voluntaristic approach says that everyone has free-will, so crime is a conscious choice. We struggle to change society, so break laws to do so. Fully social theory of Deviance
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Burke - Neo-Marxists - criticism
Critical criminology is too general and idealistic.
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Wilson and Herrnstein - Right realists
Biological differences cause crime
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Murray - Right realists
Nuclear Family undermined by the welfare state, creating a dependency culture where crime is inevitable.
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Wilson and Kelling - Broken window thesis
If a neighborhood is orderly, crime will be less likely. Once one window has been smashed, the rest quickly follow.
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Lea and Young - Left realists
Relative deprivation, deviant subcultures and marginalization all make crime more likely.
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Young - Left realists
Harsher welfare politics, increased unemployment, job insecurity, and poverty all lead to WC crime along with destabilization of family and community life, leading to weakened social control.
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Carlen - Gender and crime
Scottish courts are less likely to jail 'good mothers' compared to mothers who's children are in care already.
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Walklate- Gender and crime
Women have to establish respectability if evidence is to be believed. Although women are biologically able to bare children, why do they have to have the expressive roll?
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Dobash and Dobash - Gender and crime
Police are often unlikely to make arrests during domestic violence cases as its seen as 'family affairs'
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Pollak - Chivalry thesis
Protective attitudes towards women mean that they're less likely to be arrested, changed and convicted.
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Box - Chivalry thesis - Criticism
Meta-analysis of self-report studies show that official statistics are fairly accurate.
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Farrington and Morris - Chivalry thesis - Criticism
Women are not sentenced more leniently when the crime is more severe, e.g child abuse as doesn't fit societal norms.
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Parsons - Gender roles and crime
Gender roles of women being expressive and men instrumental lead to the differences in crime levels as women are socialized into being caring and kind, men into being aggressive and tough.
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Cohen - Gender and crime
Lack of a male role model causes a young boy to turn to crime in order to gain a role-model as a source of masculinity.
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Heinderson - Gender and crime
Fewer crimes for women as they experience more control though patriarchy.
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Messerschmitt - Gender and crime
Masculinity is a social construct, there is hegemonic and subordinated masculinity.
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Lea and Young - Ethnicity and crime
Ethnic differences in crime stats are real.
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Gilroy -Ethnicity and crime
EM are no more criminal than others. The criminal justice system act on stereotypes which leads to them being criminalized and appear worse off.
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Hall et al
Moral Panic of black mugging created during the economic crisis in the 1970's. It acted as a scapegoat away from the economic problems at the time.
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Williams and Dickinson - Media representation of crime
30% of news space is crime, and 60% of this space is violent crimes. This shows a distorted image of crimes compared to the official statistics.
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Cohen and Young - Media representation of crime
The news is manufactured not discovered. News values looked for by editors are, immediacy, dramatization, higher status persons, risk and violence. If an article shows these, its more likely to be published
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Schlesinger and Tumbler - Media representation of crime
Tabloid readers and heavy TV watchers have a greater fear of going out late compared to those who don't read tabloids and watch less TV.
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Lea and Young - Media representation of crime
Media increases relative deprivation which in turn leads to more people committing crimes as they feel deprived in comparison to others and the media.
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Thomas and Loader - Cyber-crimes
"computer mediated activities which are illegal through global electronic networks.
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Wall - Cyber-crimes
There are 4 types of cyber-crimes, hacking, identity theft, *********** and violence.
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Held et al -Globalization
"Increased interconnectedness of society from cultural to criminal, financial to spiritual. Crime has become globalised, it has spread across borders of countries.
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Taylor - Globalisation
G has caused crime at both ends of the social spectrum. Deindustrialisation causes poverty, media causes relative deprivation, deregulation causes tax avoidance and sweatshops. These three all lead to crime.
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Hobbs and Dunningham - Globalisation
Crime has become glocal, its local with global connections. e.g local drug dealers have connections with global suppliers.
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Glenny - Globalisation
McMafia - gangs and international mafia's have become their own franchises.
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Ulrich Beck - Globalisation
Postmodern society means we live in a society filled with manufactured risks. e.g contactless cards.
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Nigel South - Green Crime and Zeminology
Two types of green crime; primary and secondary. Primary eg. air pollution, deforistation, animal rights, or water pollution. Secondary e.g state violence against oppositional groups or hazardous waste dumping.
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Mclaughlin - State crimes
There are 4 types of state crimes, political, economical, cultural, security and police crimes.
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Cohen - State crimes
The state conceals and legitimises human right crimes.
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Durkheim - Punishment
Punishment upholds social solidarity. Two types of justice, Retributive and Restitutive.
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Designed the panopticon prison where inmates do not know if they are being watched, so hawthorne effect reduces likelihood of misbehaviour.
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Christie - Victimology
Positive victimology is impersonal crimes of violence. Critical victimology is patriarchy and poverty.
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Durkheim - Suicide - Typology
Suicide rates are the result of two social facts, social integration and moral regulation. 4 types of suicide, egoistic, altruistic, anomic and fatalistic.
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Douglas - Suicide
He is an interactionist so believes that the statistics around suicide aren't facts.
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Atkinson - Suicide
It is up to the coroner as to whether or not a persons death is classed as a suicide, this means that the official statistics aren't necessarily true.
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Card 2


Crime acts as a warning that society isn't functioning as it should.


Cohen - Functionalist view of Crime

Card 3


Social control agencies function to sustain a constant amount of crime so that society can properly function.


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Card 4


Prostitution is a safety valve for male sexual frustration that would threaten the nuclear family.


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Card 5


Pornography is a safety channel away from adultery that would threaten the nuclear family.


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