Sociologists

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Murdock (F)
compared family set ups in 250 societies and argued nuclear family was universal. 4 functions: reproductive, sexual (regulation), educational and economic.
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Parsons - functions (F)
two functions: primary socialisation of children and stabilisation of adult personalities (cope with stressful work).
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Parsons - societal change (F)
pre-industrial societies were organised into small farming communities of extended kin. extended family provided everything. after industrialisation extended family could not fit the needs.
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Parsons - reasons for societal change (F)
1. needed to be more geographically mobile. 2. nuclear family was relatively isolated therefore more socially mobile and achievement orientated. 3. structural differentiation.
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Young and Willmott (F)
claimed symmetrical family has become norm in Britain in 20th C. features: two parents & dependent children, privatised, no full time housewives, dual earner, child centred.
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Engels (M)
monogamous marriage confirmed legitimacy of children when passing down wealth.
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Zaretsky (M)
family benefits capitalism at expense of others: transfer of capitalist ideologies in primary socialisation, family helps manage resentment so will not act against employers and unit of consumption.
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Germaine Greer (RF)
in marriage today, women are subservient to men and single women are happier than married women.
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Margaret Benston (MF)
wives and mothers used to rear cheap labour and maintain husbands at no cost to capitalism.
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Jenny Somerville (LF)
women have much more choice about whether to marry, paid work and divorce.
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Corsaro
critical of gender role socialisation arguments since there is little research to establish a link.
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Finch (social policies)
Labour government ('97-2010) took more individualistic approach which extends the rights of parents whether they are married or not.
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Rector (marriage and divorce)
welfare state has encouraged single parenthood.
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Patricia Morgan (marriage and divorce)
concerned about decline in marriage since she believes it is crucial to society, morality and social order.
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Epstein (marriage and divorce)
arranged marriages are more successful because they are checked for compatibility.
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Beaujouan and Ni Brolchain (cohabitation)
cohabitation has become normal part of life course and is simply a test of compatibility since people are seeing marriage as more significant.
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Stacey (life course)
families and households are not concrete it is a continual flux of change = no perfect family.
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Pahl and Spencer (life course)
people are more likely to form 'personal communities' of close kin, friends who are valued for their friendship and support.
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Smart (personal life)
"personal life > family". personal life is more neutral and flexible and goes beyond marriage, biological kin and includes more diverse relationships.
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Cangiano 2014 (migration)
migration accounted for 54% increase in UK population.
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Wilkinson 1994 (demography)
Genderquake = changing attitudes towards family life and child bearing of women.
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Beck & Beck Gernsheim 1995 (demography)
Women have more freedom and many are not choosing the traditional route.
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Hakim 2010 (demography)
childlessness is a new lifestyle choice – contraceptive revolution.
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Mckeown (demography)
6 factors for decline in death rate: rising wages, health system (sewages), social housing, maternity services, NHS 1948 and welfare state.
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Rutherford (ageing population)
future government will struggle to fund both pensions and the NHS due to increasing demands.
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Chambers (ageing population)
1. this part of the population are not a uniform group and there are differences within them. 2. often remain independent until death =not much of a burden on the state. 3. often be active players in family life.
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Victor et al (ageing population)
77% of older people saw their relatives on a weekly basis this shows a positive of the ageing population.
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Healey and Yarrow (ageing population)
majority of sample of older people moved to the daughter’s house = disproportionate burden?
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Ann Oakley (power and relationships)
Y&W suggest symmetrical family is when husband did domestic work at least once a week = not representative. in her study: 15% contributed significantly to housework and 30% to childcare.
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Fisher et al (power and relationships)
fathers care of infants rose 800% from 1975 to 1997 from 15 mins to 2 hours on average working day.
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Mary Boulton (power and relationships)
mothers still take main responsibility of childcare.
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Craig (power and relationships)
men only often engage with children when mother is present and most of the time spent together was playing.
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Edgell (power and relationships)
1. very important decisions (financial) = husband. 2. important decisions (family life e.g. schools) = jointly but seldom by wife alone. 3. less important (day to day) = wife.
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Hardill et al (power and relationships)
repeated Edgell's research and found the same.
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Duncombe and Marsden (power and relationships)
emotional work includes sustaining relationships, complimenting family, smoothing arguments, buying presents for kin, organising family events. believe women work triple shift.
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Gillian Dunne (power and relationships)
1. division of labour due to gender scripts of conventional expectations embedded in familial ideologies. 2. such scripts did not exist in her 37 cohabiting lesbian couples.
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Aries (childhood)
in medieval times as soon as children were no longer dependent they were treated like 'mini adults' - childhood did not exist until end of 17th century.
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Oakley and Sharpe (childhood)
boys and girls are socialised differently based on cultural expectations of masculinity and femininity.
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Laureau (childhood)
middle class engages in concerted cultivation by enrolling children in cultural activities whereas w/c allowed 'natural growth'.
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Punch (childhood)
children in Bolivia as young as 5 were put to work looking after animals and fields.
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Postman (childhood)
1. childhood is under threat as television exposes children to adult world. 2. social blurring is occurring where there is little distinction between adulthood and childhood.
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Palmer (childhood)
adults are benefitting from technology as an alternative parenting technique resulting in 'toxic childhood'.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

two functions: primary socialisation of children and stabilisation of adult personalities (cope with stressful work).

Back

Parsons - functions (F)

Card 3

Front

pre-industrial societies were organised into small farming communities of extended kin. extended family provided everything. after industrialisation extended family could not fit the needs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1. needed to be more geographically mobile. 2. nuclear family was relatively isolated therefore more socially mobile and achievement orientated. 3. structural differentiation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

claimed symmetrical family has become norm in Britain in 20th C. features: two parents & dependent children, privatised, no full time housewives, dual earner, child centred.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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