SOCIETY + SOCIAL ISSUES - Thatcher + Major

HideShow resource information
attitudes to marriage and divorce in 1990s?
divorce rates hit record highs + Single mothers + absent fathers particularly criticised – Peter Lilley sang song expressing this concern to Tories in conference in 1992
1 of 36
what was the Child support agency?
1993 to try + ensure that absent parents paid maintenance for their children - shows acceptance to society more liberal stance BUT did also try to reinforce more conservative attitudes
2 of 36
what was the concern about under-age sex in 1990s?
Mary Whitehouse continued work + Victoria Gillock – campaign against availability of contraceptive advice to girls under age of consent but overruled 1985 by house of lords
3 of 36
what happened in government over marriage + sex scandals?
led to MPs resigning as ministers + Sex scandals were criticised for resentment of hypocrisy in party’s ‘back to basics’ campaign
4 of 36
did society become more open towards liveral take on marriage, family and divorce?
YES - sex scandals etc. criticised BUT campaigns did show some in society still held conservative views
5 of 36
Did the Tory party become more liberal on marriage and divorce?
Conservative party itself can also be seen as try to discourage divorce + a more open attitude to marriage BUT this may just have been to gain support
6 of 36
what was the Establishment?
the dominant group / elite who hold power to run the country.
7 of 36
what was the anti-establishment culture based around?
royal family + youth + environmental protest
8 of 36
what did the monarchy represent?
Monarchy represented classic divisions in country + general decline in deference of the Establishment - e.g. Diana broke the traditional image of a princess + Marriages of 3/4 of Queen’s children ended in divorce
9 of 36
what was the significance of Princess diana's death?
o 1997 – death of princess Diana in car crash – Queen accused of not caring, while country was in mourning as lost person who they identified with
10 of 36
how did the monarchy try to change attitudes?
by decreasing spending + paying taxes (for 1st time)
11 of 36
how did the youth culture represent anti-establishment?
1988 + 89 saw explosion of free raves + parties – became nicknamed ‘Second Summer of Love’ +o Raves linked to drug culture (e.g. MDMA) + provoked moral panic about drug-taking + right-wing tabloids reaction
12 of 36
were the government worried about the youth's impact?
YES - Criminal justice + public order act 1994 gave police power to break up free parties
13 of 36
why was there a rise in direct action over environmental issues?
They did not believe that they could rely on govt. to deal with matters on their behalf - e.g. Road Protest 1992 over Twyford Down M3 + Newbury Passby 1996 - brought together a wide range of people
14 of 36
what significance did the Newbury Passby 1996 have?
Newbury Passby 1996 changed transport policy – after protest, labour govt. came to power w/ manifesto pledge to stop road building + look at alternatives
15 of 36
did the anti-establishment challenge government?
Anti-establishment challenged government policies, NOT government itself
16 of 36
'third wave' feminism in 1990s?
1990s saw start of ‘third wave’ feminism – focussed on breaking down stereotypes of women involving race, gender and sexuality - grew Riot Grrrl movement – female bands
17 of 36
what was 'girl power' in mid-1990s?
mid 1990s – ‘girl power’ become more mainstream – led by Spice Girls + linked to emergence of powerful female characters + ‘ladette’ culture was exemplified + Thatcher = first female PM
18 of 36
what did thatcher do for women as PM?
thatcher did little for women – only 1 female cabinet minister – ‘a woman but not a sister’
19 of 36
any indications of progress towards women's rights?
1st female speaker in house of commons was Betty Boothroyd + 1st female head of M15 was Stella Rimmington – appointed in 1992 + 1st ordination of women as priests CoE 1994 + 1996 – 50% of employees were women - MAJOR CHANGE
20 of 36
women's position changed in 1990s?
Women’s position change considerably as more women in power + more independence/importance in marriage BUTLess change of women in workplace/govt. positions – still currently despite legislation
21 of 36
Was there progress in race relations in 1990s?
good progress – Brit started to be seen as more comfortable with multiculturalism - no mass outbreaks with racial component from 1981-85 (unlike ones in 1979-87)
22 of 36
what were the riots in 1991-92 based on?
Some riots in 1991 + 92 in cities across country from oxford to Newcastle BUT they involved mainly young white men on deprived council estates
23 of 36
1987 election show progress in race relations?
1987 election – 4 black MP’s elected (1st time since 20’s) + all held seats till 1992
24 of 36
what represents the tension between Blacks + police?
murder of Stephen Lawrence 1993 – black student was murdered by group of white youths in London -o Identity of youths was believed to be known BUT the crown prosecution service decided there was not enough evidence to convict
25 of 36
why were the police widely criticised for the handling of Stephen Lawrence Case? (1993)
– actions of police was widely criticised for not investigating case properly + assuming black teenager was likely to be perpetrator, rather than victim.
26 of 36
Impact of Stephen Lawrence case in race relations?
Stephen’s parents continued to campaign – this became a national issue + a landmark in race relations – led to nation-wide awareness that racism still existed
27 of 36
Impact of Stephen Lawrence case for the police?
Campaign in Daily mail – 1998, the Labour party ordered public enquiry into case – The MacPherson Report concluded Met Police was ‘institutionally racist’ – led to more cases being opened – some positives.
28 of 36
how long did it take for murderers of Stephen to be identified?
Took 18 years for ONLY 2 of murderers to be convicted (out of 5)
29 of 36
what did Rushdie publish?
1988 – Britain Indian author, Rushdie, published novel – The Satanic Verses – considered blasphemous by many Muslims
30 of 36
what happened after Rushdie published his book?
Ayatollah issued a fatwa (death threat) – Rushdie went into hiding + was given police protection – British tax payers money - controversial
31 of 36
impact of Rushdie's book?
Some British Muslims accepted that he had freedom of speech, BUT some burned his book + protested - Press + govt. divided on how to act - Tensions between British societal valued + Islamic beliefs shown
32 of 36
where did race riots take place in 1980s?
sparked by societal racism - areas w/ African-caribbean populations - e.g. Nottingham Gate 1982 + Brixton + Tottenham 1985
33 of 36
what did thatcher's private papers show regarding racial discrimination?
her strong objection to immigration BUT felt white immigration was not a problem - she wanted to prevent any asian immigrants being given access to council housing, ahead of white people
34 of 36
what was major's opinion on racial discrimination?
anti-racism - argued to laid foundations for Blair - John Taylor - black candidate was adopted as Tory candidate for Cheltenham - Major personally involved in campaign/made personal appearance
35 of 36
how many ethnic-minority candidates did Major adopt in 1992?
although no black/asian Tory MP was elected, major adopted 8 ethnic-minority candied,
36 of 36

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what was the Child support agency?

Back

1993 to try + ensure that absent parents paid maintenance for their children - shows acceptance to society more liberal stance BUT did also try to reinforce more conservative attitudes

Card 3

Front

what was the concern about under-age sex in 1990s?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what happened in government over marriage + sex scandals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

did society become more open towards liveral take on marriage, family and divorce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Modern Britain from 1750 resources »