SOCIETY + SOCIAL ISSUES - Thatcher + Major

attitudes to marriage and divorce in 1990s?
divorce rates hit record highs + Single mothers + absent fathers particularly criticised – Peter Lilley sang song expressing this concern to Tories in conference in 1992
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what was the Child support agency?
1993 to try + ensure that absent parents paid maintenance for their children - shows acceptance to society more liberal stance BUT did also try to reinforce more conservative attitudes
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what was the concern about under-age sex in 1990s?
Mary Whitehouse continued work + Victoria Gillock – campaign against availability of contraceptive advice to girls under age of consent but overruled 1985 by house of lords
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what happened in government over marriage + sex scandals?
led to MPs resigning as ministers + Sex scandals were criticised for resentment of hypocrisy in party’s ‘back to basics’ campaign
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did society become more open towards liveral take on marriage, family and divorce?
YES - sex scandals etc. criticised BUT campaigns did show some in society still held conservative views
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Did the Tory party become more liberal on marriage and divorce?
Conservative party itself can also be seen as try to discourage divorce + a more open attitude to marriage BUT this may just have been to gain support
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what was the Establishment?
the dominant group / elite who hold power to run the country.
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what was the anti-establishment culture based around?
royal family + youth + environmental protest
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what did the monarchy represent?
Monarchy represented classic divisions in country + general decline in deference of the Establishment - e.g. Diana broke the traditional image of a princess + Marriages of 3/4 of Queen’s children ended in divorce
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what was the significance of Princess diana's death?
o 1997 – death of princess Diana in car crash – Queen accused of not caring, while country was in mourning as lost person who they identified with
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how did the monarchy try to change attitudes?
by decreasing spending + paying taxes (for 1st time)
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how did the youth culture represent anti-establishment?
1988 + 89 saw explosion of free raves + parties – became nicknamed ‘Second Summer of Love’ +o Raves linked to drug culture (e.g. MDMA) + provoked moral panic about drug-taking + right-wing tabloids reaction
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were the government worried about the youth's impact?
YES - Criminal justice + public order act 1994 gave police power to break up free parties
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why was there a rise in direct action over environmental issues?
They did not believe that they could rely on govt. to deal with matters on their behalf - e.g. Road Protest 1992 over Twyford Down M3 + Newbury Passby 1996 - brought together a wide range of people
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what significance did the Newbury Passby 1996 have?
Newbury Passby 1996 changed transport policy – after protest, labour govt. came to power w/ manifesto pledge to stop road building + look at alternatives
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did the anti-establishment challenge government?
Anti-establishment challenged government policies, NOT government itself
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'third wave' feminism in 1990s?
1990s saw start of ‘third wave’ feminism – focussed on breaking down stereotypes of women involving race, gender and sexuality - grew Riot Grrrl movement – female bands
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what was 'girl power' in mid-1990s?
mid 1990s – ‘girl power’ become more mainstream – led by Spice Girls + linked to emergence of powerful female characters + ‘ladette’ culture was exemplified + Thatcher = first female PM
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what did thatcher do for women as PM?
thatcher did little for women – only 1 female cabinet minister – ‘a woman but not a sister’
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any indications of progress towards women's rights?
1st female speaker in house of commons was Betty Boothroyd + 1st female head of M15 was Stella Rimmington – appointed in 1992 + 1st ordination of women as priests CoE 1994 + 1996 – 50% of employees were women - MAJOR CHANGE
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women's position changed in 1990s?
Women’s position change considerably as more women in power + more independence/importance in marriage BUTLess change of women in workplace/govt. positions – still currently despite legislation
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Was there progress in race relations in 1990s?
good progress – Brit started to be seen as more comfortable with multiculturalism - no mass outbreaks with racial component from 1981-85 (unlike ones in 1979-87)
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what were the riots in 1991-92 based on?
Some riots in 1991 + 92 in cities across country from oxford to Newcastle BUT they involved mainly young white men on deprived council estates
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1987 election show progress in race relations?
1987 election – 4 black MP’s elected (1st time since 20’s) + all held seats till 1992
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what represents the tension between Blacks + police?
murder of Stephen Lawrence 1993 – black student was murdered by group of white youths in London -o Identity of youths was believed to be known BUT the crown prosecution service decided there was not enough evidence to convict
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why were the police widely criticised for the handling of Stephen Lawrence Case? (1993)
– actions of police was widely criticised for not investigating case properly + assuming black teenager was likely to be perpetrator, rather than victim.
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Impact of Stephen Lawrence case in race relations?
Stephen’s parents continued to campaign – this became a national issue + a landmark in race relations – led to nation-wide awareness that racism still existed
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Impact of Stephen Lawrence case for the police?
Campaign in Daily mail – 1998, the Labour party ordered public enquiry into case – The MacPherson Report concluded Met Police was ‘institutionally racist’ – led to more cases being opened – some positives.
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how long did it take for murderers of Stephen to be identified?
Took 18 years for ONLY 2 of murderers to be convicted (out of 5)
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what did Rushdie publish?
1988 – Britain Indian author, Rushdie, published novel – The Satanic Verses – considered blasphemous by many Muslims
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what happened after Rushdie published his book?
Ayatollah issued a fatwa (death threat) – Rushdie went into hiding + was given police protection – British tax payers money - controversial
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impact of Rushdie's book?
Some British Muslims accepted that he had freedom of speech, BUT some burned his book + protested - Press + govt. divided on how to act - Tensions between British societal valued + Islamic beliefs shown
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where did race riots take place in 1980s?
sparked by societal racism - areas w/ African-caribbean populations - e.g. Nottingham Gate 1982 + Brixton + Tottenham 1985
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what did thatcher's private papers show regarding racial discrimination?
her strong objection to immigration BUT felt white immigration was not a problem - she wanted to prevent any asian immigrants being given access to council housing, ahead of white people
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what was major's opinion on racial discrimination?
anti-racism - argued to laid foundations for Blair - John Taylor - black candidate was adopted as Tory candidate for Cheltenham - Major personally involved in campaign/made personal appearance
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how many ethnic-minority candidates did Major adopt in 1992?
although no black/asian Tory MP was elected, major adopted 8 ethnic-minority candied,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what was the Child support agency?


1993 to try + ensure that absent parents paid maintenance for their children - shows acceptance to society more liberal stance BUT did also try to reinforce more conservative attitudes

Card 3


what was the concern about under-age sex in 1990s?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what happened in government over marriage + sex scandals?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


did society become more open towards liveral take on marriage, family and divorce?


Preview of the front of card 5
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