Socialist Thinkers

  • Created by: AshyBoy
  • Created on: 14-08-18 10:41
KARL MARX (1818 - 1883) AND FRIEDRICH ENGELS (1820 - 1895)
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What did they write and when?
"The Communist Manifesto" 1848.
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What is 'Historical Materialism'?
Changes happen in society due to class conflict caused by economic conflict between classes, e.g. factory owners vs proletariat (Socialism was inevitable and could be scientifically proven.) The bourgeoisie exploit the proletariat.
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What is 'surplus value'?
How workers are paid less than the true value of their labour. Workers end up 'alienated' from their work and co workers especially since they are just doing a menial task such as stitching as opposed to a carpenter putting his soul into a project.
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What is 'Dialectics'?
Developed by Hegel and borrowed by Marx. Ideas conflict - first there is a thesis, this is a proposition and then inevitably there will be an antithesis which challenges this proposition and finally the synthesis which is the result of the clash.
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What is 'Class Consciousness'?
The proletariat will eventually realise they are being exploited by the bourgeoisie and they would create a revolution. 'Class conflict' therefore is the driving force of history.
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What do socialists attribute to Marx as predicting accurately?
Globalisation and the exploitation of capitalism (e.g. sweat shops in Bangladesh) and alienation of workers.
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Once revolution occurred there would be a dictatorship of the ___ and then the state will gradually ___ ___. Of which true ___ and ___ will emerge.
proletariat - wither away - equality - freedom
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Humans are ___ beings not individuals. Our natures are determined by ___ - nurture not nature. True humanity and freedom can only be expressed under ___.
social - society - communism
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What did Engels argue about the role of women?
He argued that the 'subjugation of women' (and the traditional nuclear family) was an essential part of the capitalist system.
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ROSA LUXEMBURG (1858 - 1919)
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What ideology of Socialism did she follow?
Revolutionary Socialist - Evolutionary Socialism not possible because 'capitalism is always based on economic exploitation'.
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Why was she critical of Lenin and the Russian Revolution?
Because it was too authoritarian and dictatorial. She was opposed to the First World War - an imperialist conflict that would not benefit the working classes.
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How did she believe revolution would rise?
She believed it rose through 'mass action' - a spontaneous uprising of the proletariat. This could come through a 'general strike'.
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What did some communists see her as?
A naive 'utopian'.
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What did she argue in "The Accumulation of Capital" 1913?
That 'capitalism would lead to economic imperialism'.
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What happened to her?
She was executed alongside Karl Liebknecht after the crushing of the Spartacist Uprising in Berlin 1919 by the far right para-military group the Friedkorps under the order of the Weimer Government.
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BEATRICE WEBB (1858 - 1943) - and husband Sidney
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What were her views on revolution?
She rejected revolution and opted for education and 'gradual reform' instead as the key to equality.
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What is 'The Inevitability of Gradualness'?
A gradualist 'parliamentary strategy' for achieving evolutionary socialism. The 'state is neutral' (not a capitalist creation) and can be used to create a just society.
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What were her opinions on the class war?
She was opposed to the class war - socialism should be inclusive and education is the key. Founded the Fabian Society and the LSE.
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What were her ideas on the states role?
She believed that 'the state could deliver socialism'. In favour of state intervention in the economy. Their ideas lead indirectly to the welfare state and the Beveridge Report.
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ANTHONY CROSLAND (1918 - 1977)
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What did he argue in "The future of Socialism"?
He argued that 'capitalism had matured', and owners were no longer in control of production. There was a new class of managers who were not into just focused on profit (e.g. happy to co-operate with trade unions).
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What is 'State Managed Capitalism'?
Crosland was a revisionist and so accepted a mixed economy. Socialism had to change - not about class war and bashing the rich but creating 'good public services and education' to achieve an equal more just society.
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What did Crosland believe that socialism could provide?
'Full employment' and 'universal social benefits'
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What was he very influential on?
Tony Blair and the formation of the Third Way
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What did he reject about traditional socialism?
He 'rejected Marxism and state intervention': accepted the free market in the economy - there is no alternative to capitalism.
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Which did he prioritise? Equality of Opportunity or Equality of Outcome?
Equality of Opportunity. And community over class conflict.
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What are his opinions on the role of the state?
He believed that the role of the state is to provide social investment in infrastructure and education (Blair - 'education, education, education) not 'top down' economic and social engineering/redistribution of income.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What did they write and when?


"The Communist Manifesto" 1848.

Card 3


What is 'Historical Materialism'?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is 'surplus value'?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is 'Dialectics'?


Preview of the front of card 5
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