Social Psychology: Gender (1)

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What three things interact between a person and their social world?
Emotion, Behaviour, Cognition
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What percentage of people fall within +/- one SD of the mean?
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What is an effect size (d)?
the displacement between male and female distributions
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What does a positive d value show?
that men are higher
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what does a negative d value show?
that women are higher
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A meta-analysis summarises the standardises magnitude of multiple independent studies, what is the formula for d?
d= (male average-female average) / pooled SD
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What type of variable is sex/gender and why?
A quasi experimental variable, because it cannot be manipulated
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What is a reliable psychometric test?
One that is consistent in measurement over time (test-retest) and measuring a single construct (internal consistency)
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What is a valid psychometric test?
One which produces scores that correlate with external criterion (concurrent or predictive)
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Give two examples of sociolinguistic variables that can be measured
grammatical construction (questions, phrases) and social force (aggression, challenges, releases of tensions)
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According to Tannen 1990, which type of talk do men engage in?
Report talk
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According to Tannen 1990, which type of talk do women engage in?
Rapport talk
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What traits are included in 'femininity/expressivity/nurturance/communion'?
Affectionate, sympathetic, loyal, sensitive, compassionate, understanding
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Which traits are included in 'masculinity/instrumentality/dominance/agency'?
Ambitious, assertive, dominant, risk-taking, self-reliant, forceful
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What is the difference between rule systems among male and female infants?
Males have an impersonal rule system whereas female rules are negotiable in service of harmony
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What were the overall findings of Leaper and Smith's 2004 meta-analysis?
Lads: assertiveness (0.11), Ladies: affiliative (-0.26)
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How did Mischel 1996 explain gender differences?
Developmental theory based on the reinforcement principle
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How did Bandura 1973 explain gender differences?
Social Learning Theory based on imitation of same sex models
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How did Martin and Halverson 1991 explain gender differences?
Gender Schema Theory
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What is a gender schema?
the organisation of semantic memory and knowledge, forming a structures internal representation
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According to gender schema theory, gender labelling/identity occurs at 26031 months old. Which sex differences precede this stage?
toy preference, same sex peers, conflict, interaction with adults
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What did Fagot & Leinbach 1993 find in relation to gender schema theory?
Infants can learn to discriminate male and female faces at
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What are Kohlberg's stages of gender knowledge?
identity, stability, constancy
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How did Eagly 1987 explain gender differences?
Social role theory based on socially shared expectations that apply to people who occupy a certain position or are members of a particular social category
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Inconsistent with social role theory, what did Lockenhoff et al 2014 find?
Perceived stereotypes were lower than the real difference (the theory suggests the stereotypes lead to the difference and should therefore be stronger)
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Which two forms of systematic selection act upon genetic variability?
Natural selection and sexual selection
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What is natural selection?
different survival of individuals as a function of their performance in a particular ecological niche
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What is sexual selection?
differential reproductions of individuals resulting in an alternation of gene frequency in the next generation
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What is inter-sexual competition?
the opposite sex prefers some traits more than others, increasing the frequency of those genes in the next generation
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What is intra-sexual competition?
some traits make and individual a better reproductive competitor against members of their own sex
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Give three ways in which female parental investment is higher than male parental investment
anisogamy, gestation, lactation
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What is a sex linked gene?
A gene located on the X or Y chromosome
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What is a sex limited gene?
A gene located on an autosome (not X or Y) which is turned on by the presenxe of a sex hormone
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Are most sex differences sex linked or sex limited?
sex limited
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Which chromosome carries the SRY gene and what is this gene important for?
On the Y chromosome, it prescribes the manufacture of testes and inhibition of female reproductive organs
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Testosterone has organising effects on the foetus, when does production begin and end?
begins at 6 weeks and ends at 3-6 months post-partum
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Testosterone also has circulating effects, when does this occur?
At puberty where testosterone levels rise and remain high
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What is CAH?
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia/Adrenogenital Syndrome
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Which brain areas are larger in women?
The hippocampus and corpus callous
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Which brain areas is larger in men?
The amygdala
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Is serotonin synthesis higher in men or women?
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Which gender shows more intra-hemispheric connectivity?
Men (spatial perception and action)
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Which gender shows more inter-hemispheric connectivity?
Women (left: analysis and reasoning, right: spatial and intuition)
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What percentage of people fall within +/- one SD of the mean?



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What is an effect size (d)?


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What does a positive d value show?


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what does a negative d value show?


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