Social Psychology: Friendship (4)

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Why was there an evolutionary selection for sociality?
Because aggregations of people enhanced territorial defence and synergistic cooperation
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What is Dunbar's number?
148. Maximum human group number based on the regression line for group size and neocortex correlation of other primates
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What percentage of waking time is spent grooming among primates?
20%
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What percentage of waking time is spent in conversation among humans?
20%
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What did Dunbar suggest language is used for?
A replacement of grooming that maintains friendships and alliances
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Why is language an effective way to maintain relationships?
Unlike grooming, it can be greater than 1 on 1 and it can be done in tandem with other activities
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According to Dunbar 1993, what is 70% of conversation devoted to?
social relationships and personal experiences
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According to Dunbar 1993, what percentage of conversation is devoted to relationships or experiences of third parties?
50%
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How many levels of theory of mind can we implicitly understand?
5
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exclusion is form of ...
indirect aggression
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Which do females rate as worse; physical pain or social isolation?
social isolation
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What are both social exclusion and physical pain associated with?
anxiety, fear, defensive aggression, depression and withdrawal
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As shown by fMRI studies, which two areas of the brain do both social exclusion and physical pain activate?
ACC (anterior cingulate cortex) and the PAG (pariaqueductal gray)
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What is the role of the ACC/anterior cingulate cortex?
to register pain affect, but not intensity. It is also active when watching another in pain
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What is the role of the PAG/pariaqueductal gray?
receive input from the ACC, detect bodily injury, stimulate separation and distress calls, organise physiological responses to threats, induces analgesia
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What do opioids do?
reduce pain and separation distress
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What does 'affect' mean in relation to pain?
the emotional sense of distress felt when you are in pain
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What did Berkman & Breslow 1983 find in relation to friendship and health?
controlling for health factors, those with the fewest relationships were twice as likely to die
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What does the HPA release in response to stress?
cortisol
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What is the effect of prolonged cortisol release?
supressed immune function
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Wha is the role of B lymphocytes?
to attack antigens in body fluids
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What is the role of T lymphocytes?
to attack antigens inside cells
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What did Sherif et al 1961 find? (Robber cave study)
Introducing competition in a kids camp produced hostility, which didn't diminish when the competition was removed
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What is Tajfel's minimal group paradigm? (1970)
When put in a group for a minimal reason, most Ps will choose to allocate points in a way that penalises themselves to penalise the other group even more
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What is categorical differentiation?
When we exaggerate the differences between groups
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What is positive distinctiveness?
In-group is differentiated as more positive to enhance our own self worth
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According to Festinger, Schacter & Back 1950, what is a major cause of who becomes our closest friends?
Mere exposure
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Wha is genetic similarity theory? (Rush 1989)
The theory that we will be friends with those who are genetically similar to us
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What is the heritability of trait and friend similarity?
r=.40
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What is social referencing?
informal conformity under uncertainty/confirmation of ambiguous social reality
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How did Sherif 1935 explain genetic similarity theory?
social referencing ... when there is no objective standard for judgement accuracy, we look to others
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What is the balance theory of friendship?
circumstances may alter the balance of relationships, in which case the relationships will change to restore the balance
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According to balance theory, when is a relationship balanced?
When the multiplication of signs is positive
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Clarke 1984 identified two types of relationships, what are they?
exchange and communal
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Who are the 'targets' of exchange relationships?
acquaintances, business relations, strangers
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Who are the 'targets' of communal relationships?
kin, partners, close friends
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If given a thank you note and points rather than just a thank you note, how is communal liking affected?
communal liking decreases because it demotes the relationship to exchange
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What is Dunbar's number?

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148. Maximum human group number based on the regression line for group size and neocortex correlation of other primates

Card 3

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What percentage of waking time is spent grooming among primates?

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Card 4

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What percentage of waking time is spent in conversation among humans?

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Card 5

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What did Dunbar suggest language is used for?

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