Social Psychology: Altruism (3)

HideShow resource information
What is altruism?
an act that is motivated by the desire to benefit another at costs to yourself
1 of 22
What is Hamilton's rule (1963)?
RS costs to me < (RS benefit to you) x (r=our relatedness) ... (c
2 of 22
What did Stewart-Williams 2007 find in relation to kin altruism?
As the cost of helping increases, closer kin receive a larger proportion of help than more distant kin and friends
3 of 22
According to Trivers 1971, under what circumstances does reciprocal altruism occur?
When the benefit to the recipient is high, the cost to the donor is low, it is likely that the position will be reversed in future
4 of 22
What are the necessary conditions for reciprocal altruism?
social species, stable groups, good face recognition, good long term memory and non cooperation/punishment of defectors
5 of 22
rationally, what is the best solution to the prisoners dilemma?
confess
6 of 22
Why is the prisoners dilemma considered a non-zero sum?
both tend to behave selfishly and get a mutually bad outcome, but both could benefit if they chose to cooperate
7 of 22
Why does the prisoners dilemma not apply to human societies?
unlike society, it's a short term one time interaction
8 of 22
What does Equity theory (a theory of reciprocation) suggest?
relationships are stable when each parties pay offs are proportionate to their costs
9 of 22
What principle is exchange theory (a theory of reciprocation) based on?
the minimax principle, that we maximise profits helping when the rewards are greater than the costs
10 of 22
What is the main problem with equity theory and exchange theory of altruism according to Batson 1991?
They could be considered too cognitive
11 of 22
What is empathy?
a feeling of compassion and tenderness upon viewing a victims plight
12 of 22
Did Batson relate altruism to empathy or distress?
empathy
13 of 22
Did Cialdini relate altruism to empathy or distress?
distress
14 of 22
What did Batson's electric shock escape experiment tell us about altruism?
without empathy, self interest determines whether or not we help someone
15 of 22
What did analysis or Carnegie Hero Medal Recipient statement's suggest about the automaticity of altruism?
Suggests it was automatic, intuitive and fast, and not slow or reasoned
16 of 22
What did Darley & Bateson 1973, suggest is a reason for failing to help in emergencies?
failure to notice the event (60% of early Ps noticed the event compared to 10% of late Ps)
17 of 22
What did Latane & Darley 1970, suggest is a reason for failing to help in an emergency?
Not interpreting the event as an emergency as a result of pluralistic ignorance
18 of 22
What did Latane & Darley 1968, suggest is another reason for failing to help in an emergency?
Not assuming responsibility due to diffusion of responsibility
19 of 22
What did Fischer et al 2011, suggest is a reason for failing to help in an emergency?
The bystander effect
20 of 22
What reduces the bystander effect?
no ambiguity of danger, the perpetrator is present, the solution requires cooperation
21 of 22
What increases the bystander effect?
among females, strangers, lab > field, increased number of bystanders
22 of 22

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Hamilton's rule (1963)?

Back

RS costs to me < (RS benefit to you) x (r=our relatedness) ... (c

Card 3

Front

What did Stewart-Williams 2007 find in relation to kin altruism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

According to Trivers 1971, under what circumstances does reciprocal altruism occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the necessary conditions for reciprocal altruism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Altruism resources »