Social Influence

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  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 27-04-14 21:52
The two types of conformity are normative and informational, what do these mean?
The need to be liked and the need to be right.
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Sherif used a beam of light to test when people conform, what did he find?
There was a consensus when asked as part of a group, and the same answer was given even when pts were asked individually.
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What is a criticism of Sherif?
It is debated whether conformity actually occurs in his study.
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What did Asch find when pts were asked to match line X to either line 1, 2, or 3?
When confederates gave the SAME wrong answer, 82% of trials saw the pt conforming. 74% conformed at least once and only 26% never conformed.
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What did Asch's study show?
There is a strong pressure to conform with unanimous majority in ambiguous situations.
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What is wrong with Asch's study?
Set in 1951 - a time where conformity was common, and set in the USA so is ethnocentric.
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When Asch changed the setting and conditions of his study, what did he find?
Non-unanimous - 5% decrease. Smaller majority - 13% decrease. Gaining a partner - 9% decrease. Losing the partner - 28% increase after 9% decrease.
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How did Moscovici test minority influence?
172 pts in groups of 4+2 confederates estimated the colour of 36 blue slides. When confederates consistently said green, pts said green 8.4% of the time. When it was non-consistent, pts said green 1.3% of the time.
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How can Moscovici's study be criticised?
It is hard to control extraneous variables such as eye sight.
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What did Clarke find in the 12 Angry Men test, when a 3 page summary of counter arguments were presented in different scenarios?
As people rated guilt on a 9 point scale, when they heard 4, some changed their mind. There is a 'ceiling of influence' at 4.
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What does identification mean and who famously studied it?
Adapting views, norms and behaviour to a reference group. Zimbardo.
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What is wrong with Zimbardo's study?
Psychological harm of pts, pts were male, from the USA and university students so is unrepresentative.
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What did Milgram find in his study of obedience?
All pts went up to 300v, while 65% went to the end.
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What is wrong with Milgram's study?
Deception, pressure to continue, no protection of pts, no fully informed consent, androcentric, lab lacks ecological validity.
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What did Milgram find when he changed the conditions of his study?
Moved to bridgeport - 47.5%. Teacher+learner in same room - 40%. Teacher to press learners hands on plate - 30%. Teacher supported by 2 other teachers - 10%.
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Why do people obey?
Legitimate authority, gradual commitment, buffers, agentic shift.
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Why did people show independent behaviour in Milgram's study?
Individual differences e.g morals, feeling responsible, disobedient models.
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How can studies into conformity be used in society?
Social Identity Theory (belonging to a group), Greenpeace - social change, Social Creativity - 'black is beautiful' campaign, Social Action - suffragettes.
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How can studies into conformity be abused in society?
Interrogation to get confessions - minority, obedience, majority. Thought control used in sects.
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Card 2

Front

Sherif used a beam of light to test when people conform, what did he find?

Back

There was a consensus when asked as part of a group, and the same answer was given even when pts were asked individually.

Card 3

Front

What is a criticism of Sherif?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Asch find when pts were asked to match line X to either line 1, 2, or 3?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Asch's study show?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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