Social influence

Define social facilitation:
where your performance at a task or sport is affected by the mere presence of other people
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Triplett (1898)
observation of whether cyclists would produce faster times when racing with another cyclist rather than simply competing on ther own. Compared times alone, paced, and in a group. (found cyclists were slowest when on there own and fastest in a group)
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Adaption of Triplett's original study on social facilitation
Devised a lab task to investigate whether or not performance would be enhanced in the precende of other people; wind in a fishing reel. performed task alone, and in pairs. Performance was faster in the presence of another person: it was facilitated
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Allport's findings on social facilitation:
Found simple tasks were better in front of peopler however more comlex tasks performance was better when working alone
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Daishell's findings on social facilitation
the number of arithmetic tasks increased but so did the number of errors made.
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Zajonc's theory on social facilitation:
Performance of a well learned or well practice task is enhanced by the presence of other people in contrasts complex is inhibited. (performance facilitated and learning is impaired by the presence of spectators.
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Michael's study of social facilitation:
tested the prediction that the presence if and audience would facilitate well learned behaviours and inhibit porly learned behaviours. Found it was affected by the dominant responses.
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Zajonc's drive theory of social facilitation
Presence of others increases arousal level. increasing tenedency to perfrom dominant response. Performance optimam when arousal is moderate
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What is evaluation apprehension?
Cottrell (1972) when perfroming a task in the presence of others, cottrel claimed that people experience evaluation apprehension.
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Bartis study on evaluation apprehension
found that evaluation apprehension increases performance on simple task but decreases performance on complex tasks
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Distaction theory of socail facilitation:
Saunders: preszence of other people causes a distraction. Higher distraction conditions perfromed at a higher level on a simple task byt produced more errors on the complex task.
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Evaluation of effects if arousal on task performance:
challenged view that arousal alone explains social facilitation. thought that both arousal and cognitive processes, such as attention are involved. Criticisms occur that audiences are not passice and simply observe they are loud and judgmental.
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Define conformity:
A type of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes, beliefs, or behaviours in order to adhere to existing social norms.
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Autokinetic effect as a study of conformity:
sheriff conducting an experiment with the aim to demonstrate ho people conform to group or social norms when they are put in an ambiguous or novel situation. (dark room spot of light appears move) estimate: the group converged (deviant conformed)
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Asch's study of conformity
aimed at investigating the influence of an incorrect majority view on individual exposed. niave particpant and 7 who had aggred to give the wrong answer. Asch found that people will conform to a majority veiw even when obvious. only 22% all correct
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Two main types of conformity
Internalistation- individual acceps and beileives it to be correct: and Compliance:where they conforms but does not believe to be correct.
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Explain normative social influence
conformity to remain harmony and to avoid rejection by the group or to gain approval
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Explain informational social influence
COnfomirty as a result of infomation presented to you. Resulting in private acceptance.
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Decreasing conformity
if one confederate gave the right answer. a different person gave a different wrong answer. larger group higher levels of conformity
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Increasing conformity
attractivnees and cohesivness
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personality and conformity:
low self esteem, low intelligence high need for social approval.
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How can obedience to authority have a positive and a negative effect
Posistive: people obey laws of society and autority figurenand follow instructions all of which are essential for smooth running of society. Negative: obedience can be destructive and result in crimes: e.g. nazi's
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One key study of obedience
Milgrams study (1960's)
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How did milgram recruit particpants?
By putting an ad in the local news oaoer asking for volunteers on an experment on learning.
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How did they decide who was the teacher and the learner in milgrams study?
By chossing out of a hat however it was always fixed. Particpant always the teacher.
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What happened if the 'learner' chose a wrong answer in milgrams study
Electric shock was administers and each time increasing in intenisty (15-60, 75-120, 135-180, 195- 240, 255-300, 315-360, 375-420, 425-450)
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How did milgram get the particpants to continue in the experiemnt
orders such as 'please go on' 'the experiement requires you to continue' 'you have no other choice but to continue'
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What were the results of milgrams experiment
100% administed 240V and 63% administered up to 450V which was the highest.
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Explanations of obedience
Legitamacy of the system: legitimacy of the authority: Legitmacy of demands
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Situational factors affecting obedience
Legitimacy of system: run down less respectable part of town: lower levels: Legitimacy of autorty: casually dressed= lower obedience. Proximity of the learner./ Proximity of authority figure.
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Dispositional factors affecting obedience
Authoritarian personality:
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Ethical issues
Deception: decieved about reasons for conducting experiement. Informed consent: Potential harm: Withdrawel from experiment
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Metholodical issues
Ecological validity: Demand characteristics: Participants:
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Card 2


Triplett (1898)


observation of whether cyclists would produce faster times when racing with another cyclist rather than simply competing on ther own. Compared times alone, paced, and in a group. (found cyclists were slowest when on there own and fastest in a group)

Card 3


Adaption of Triplett's original study on social facilitation


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Card 4


Allport's findings on social facilitation:


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Card 5


Daishell's findings on social facilitation


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